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Table 2.

Summary of the kinematics associated with jaw and hyolingual movements in Tupinambis merianae during intraoral transport and pharyngeal packing of adult and newborn mice

Intraoral transport
Pharyngeal packing
NewbornAdultNewbornAdult
Number of feeding events 
Number of cycles analyzed 16 13 17 16 
Total duration of gape cycle (ms) 598±33 831±110 546±42 609±42 
Maximal gape (deg.) 25.7±1.7 42.2±3.0 15.3±0.6 25.5±1.7 
Time to maximal gape (ms) 407±31 456±73 341±26 323±26 
Number of feeding events 
Number of cycles analyzed 12 13 10 
Time to maximal anterior tongue displacement (ms) 327±65 417±111 174±11 201±89 
Time to maximal posterior tongue displacement (ms) 525±38 526±96 400±41 475±47 
Maximal total tongue displacement (mm) 24.2±1.7 22.2±1.1 26.9±2.7 14.9±1.4 
Speed of tongue retraction (cm s–11.7±0.2 1.5±0.2 2.4±0.4 0.8±0.1 
Time to maximal tongue elongation (ms) 305±50 608±148 154±19 282±85 
Time to maximal tongue shortening (ms) 300±62 553±126 391±39 402±63 
Time to maximal dorsal displacement of the basihyal (ms) 151±40 380±96 280±55 219±33 
Time to maximal ventral displacement of the basihyal (ms) 512±55 588±204 285±59 384±72 
Total vertical displacement of the basihyal (mm) 6.3±0.7 5.4±0.5 5.5±0.9 6.8±0.7 
Time to maximal compression of the pharynx (ms) 160±44 443±122 269±53 177±44 
Time to maximal expansion of the pharynx (ms) 508±54 700±194 235±66 472±65 
Total pharynx expansion (mm) 6.5±0.8 4.7±1.1 5.1±0.7 5.5±1.0 
Intraoral transport
Pharyngeal packing
NewbornAdultNewbornAdult
Number of feeding events 
Number of cycles analyzed 16 13 17 16 
Total duration of gape cycle (ms) 598±33 831±110 546±42 609±42 
Maximal gape (deg.) 25.7±1.7 42.2±3.0 15.3±0.6 25.5±1.7 
Time to maximal gape (ms) 407±31 456±73 341±26 323±26 
Number of feeding events 
Number of cycles analyzed 12 13 10 
Time to maximal anterior tongue displacement (ms) 327±65 417±111 174±11 201±89 
Time to maximal posterior tongue displacement (ms) 525±38 526±96 400±41 475±47 
Maximal total tongue displacement (mm) 24.2±1.7 22.2±1.1 26.9±2.7 14.9±1.4 
Speed of tongue retraction (cm s–11.7±0.2 1.5±0.2 2.4±0.4 0.8±0.1 
Time to maximal tongue elongation (ms) 305±50 608±148 154±19 282±85 
Time to maximal tongue shortening (ms) 300±62 553±126 391±39 402±63 
Time to maximal dorsal displacement of the basihyal (ms) 151±40 380±96 280±55 219±33 
Time to maximal ventral displacement of the basihyal (ms) 512±55 588±204 285±59 384±72 
Total vertical displacement of the basihyal (mm) 6.3±0.7 5.4±0.5 5.5±0.9 6.8±0.7 
Time to maximal compression of the pharynx (ms) 160±44 443±122 269±53 177±44 
Time to maximal expansion of the pharynx (ms) 508±54 700±194 235±66 472±65 
Total pharynx expansion (mm) 6.5±0.8 4.7±1.1 5.1±0.7 5.5±1.0 

Table entries are means ± standard error of the mean. See Materials and methods for details

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