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Table 1.

Summary of the kinematics associated with cranio-cervical movements in Tupinambis merianae during intraoral transport and pharyngeal packing of adult and newborn mice

Intraoral transport
Pharyngeal packing
NewbornAdultNewbornAdult
Number of feeding events 
Number of cycles analyzed 16 13 17 16 
Time to minimal vertical displacement of the cranium (ms) 122±37 149±55 157±61 116±48 
Time to maximal vertical displacement of the cranium (ms) 478±32 503±91 384±42 404±47 
Minimal head slope (deg.) 94.8±1.4 87.4±3.8 95.7±1.6 85.6±3.7 
Time to minimal head slope (ms) 363±44 500±73 322±47 343±60 
Maximal head slope (deg.) 111.4±1.3 116.3±3.5 108.7±1.3 106.4±1.9 
Time to maximal head slope (ms) 244±32 142±54 213±42 174±46 
Total rotation of the head (deg.) 16.6±1.2 28.9±2.7 13.0±1.3 20.8±2.6 
Head slope at mouth opening (deg.) 103.7±1.5 113.6±3.7 102.1±1.0 98.4±2.2 
Minimal neck slope (deg.) 68.0±1.6 65.7±4.4 58.4±2.5 44.7±1.9 
Time to maximal neck slope (ms) 417±54 533±87 283±46 400±59 
Maximal neck slope (deg.) 80.7±1.4 84.3±4.7 72.0±1.4 57.5±0.5 
Time to maximal neck slope (ms) 137±32 90±53 146±41 218±59 
Total rotation of the neck (deg.) 12.7±0.8 18.5±2.7 13.7±1.8 12.8±1.6 
Neck slope at mouth opening (deg.) 77.1±1.6 79.3±4.0 67.0±2.0 51.5±1.6 
Minimal head angle (deg.) 141.4±1.2 134.7±3.0 133.8±2.2 123.3±1.8 
Time to minimal head angle (ms) 325±57 330±82 305±38 229±42 
Maximal head angle (deg.) 161.5±1.4 165.6±2.4 151.6±1.7 148.3±2.8 
Time to maximal head angle (ms) 347±66 819±115 266±52 570±77 
Total rotation of the cranium relative to the neck (deg.) 20.1±1.2 30.9±3.0 17.8±1.7 25.1±3.3 
Head angle at mouth opening (deg.) 153.4±1.5 144.6±2.2 145.0±1.8 132.9±1.8 
Intraoral transport
Pharyngeal packing
NewbornAdultNewbornAdult
Number of feeding events 
Number of cycles analyzed 16 13 17 16 
Time to minimal vertical displacement of the cranium (ms) 122±37 149±55 157±61 116±48 
Time to maximal vertical displacement of the cranium (ms) 478±32 503±91 384±42 404±47 
Minimal head slope (deg.) 94.8±1.4 87.4±3.8 95.7±1.6 85.6±3.7 
Time to minimal head slope (ms) 363±44 500±73 322±47 343±60 
Maximal head slope (deg.) 111.4±1.3 116.3±3.5 108.7±1.3 106.4±1.9 
Time to maximal head slope (ms) 244±32 142±54 213±42 174±46 
Total rotation of the head (deg.) 16.6±1.2 28.9±2.7 13.0±1.3 20.8±2.6 
Head slope at mouth opening (deg.) 103.7±1.5 113.6±3.7 102.1±1.0 98.4±2.2 
Minimal neck slope (deg.) 68.0±1.6 65.7±4.4 58.4±2.5 44.7±1.9 
Time to maximal neck slope (ms) 417±54 533±87 283±46 400±59 
Maximal neck slope (deg.) 80.7±1.4 84.3±4.7 72.0±1.4 57.5±0.5 
Time to maximal neck slope (ms) 137±32 90±53 146±41 218±59 
Total rotation of the neck (deg.) 12.7±0.8 18.5±2.7 13.7±1.8 12.8±1.6 
Neck slope at mouth opening (deg.) 77.1±1.6 79.3±4.0 67.0±2.0 51.5±1.6 
Minimal head angle (deg.) 141.4±1.2 134.7±3.0 133.8±2.2 123.3±1.8 
Time to minimal head angle (ms) 325±57 330±82 305±38 229±42 
Maximal head angle (deg.) 161.5±1.4 165.6±2.4 151.6±1.7 148.3±2.8 
Time to maximal head angle (ms) 347±66 819±115 266±52 570±77 
Total rotation of the cranium relative to the neck (deg.) 20.1±1.2 30.9±3.0 17.8±1.7 25.1±3.3 
Head angle at mouth opening (deg.) 153.4±1.5 144.6±2.2 145.0±1.8 132.9±1.8 

Table entries are means ± standard error of the mean. See Materials and methods for details

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