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Table 2.

Mean kinematics, aerodynamic coefficients, body mass-specific powers and efficiencies for 13 Euglossa imperialis individuals hovering in a screened insectary on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

Mean95% C.I.F1,12P
WBF (Hz) 173 169-176 4.37 0.061 
φ (deg.) 124 121-126 1.59 0.233 
β (deg.) 9.94 7.50-12.39 0.093 0.766 
χ (deg.) 21.5 19.9-23.1 0.990 0.350 
Re 1650 1540-1750 0.421 0.530 
CL 1.49 1.32-1.66 0.331 0.577 
CD 2.71 2.40-3.03 0.335 0.574 
Vind (m s−11.85 1.77-1.93 2.12 0.173 
P*ind (W kg−118.2 17.4-19.1 2.64 0.135 
P*pro (W kg−1133 128-138 0.068 0.800 
P*acc (W kg−182.1 69.8-94.5 0.188 0.673 
P*zero (W kg−1197 191-203 0.002 0.963 
P*per (W kg−1152 148-156 0.108 0.749 
P*met (W kg−1903 819-986 10.5 0.012 
P*heat (W kg−1634 553-716 9.06 0.012 
P*evap (W kg−144.7 35.8-53.5 n/a n/a 
ηheat, zero (%) 22.9 21.1-24.7 7.70 0.018 
ηmet, zero (%) 22.2 20.3-24.2 8.56 0.014 
ηheat, per (%) 18.6 16.9-20.4 6.85 0.024 
ηmet, per (%) 17.1 15.6-18.6 10.5 0.008 
ηsubtraction (%) 24.1 14.8-33.4 0.16 0.696 
Mean95% C.I.F1,12P
WBF (Hz) 173 169-176 4.37 0.061 
φ (deg.) 124 121-126 1.59 0.233 
β (deg.) 9.94 7.50-12.39 0.093 0.766 
χ (deg.) 21.5 19.9-23.1 0.990 0.350 
Re 1650 1540-1750 0.421 0.530 
CL 1.49 1.32-1.66 0.331 0.577 
CD 2.71 2.40-3.03 0.335 0.574 
Vind (m s−11.85 1.77-1.93 2.12 0.173 
P*ind (W kg−118.2 17.4-19.1 2.64 0.135 
P*pro (W kg−1133 128-138 0.068 0.800 
P*acc (W kg−182.1 69.8-94.5 0.188 0.673 
P*zero (W kg−1197 191-203 0.002 0.963 
P*per (W kg−1152 148-156 0.108 0.749 
P*met (W kg−1903 819-986 10.5 0.012 
P*heat (W kg−1634 553-716 9.06 0.012 
P*evap (W kg−144.7 35.8-53.5 n/a n/a 
ηheat, zero (%) 22.9 21.1-24.7 7.70 0.018 
ηmet, zero (%) 22.2 20.3-24.2 8.56 0.014 
ηheat, per (%) 18.6 16.9-20.4 6.85 0.024 
ηmet, per (%) 17.1 15.6-18.6 10.5 0.008 
ηsubtraction (%) 24.1 14.8-33.4 0.16 0.696 

F-statistic and P-values are the results of a linear regression for a given parameter on air temperature. Profile drag coefficients were estimated using a lift-to-drag ratio of 0.55(Sane and Dickinson, 2001). For definitions, see text and List of symbols.

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