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Table 2.

Literature values of coupling strength during straight walking

Ipsilateral
Contralateral
Rule 1Rule 2Rule 3Rule 1Rule 2Rule 3
Dean, 1991b  -0.62 0.19 to 0.57 -0.26 to 0.26 -0.62 0.19 to 0.48 0-0.48 
Espenschied et al., 1993  -0.3 0.5 0 to 0.29 -0.06 0.05 0 to 0.39 
Calvitti and Beer, 2000  -0.3 0.5 0 to 0.3 – 0.05 0 to 0.45 
This study -0.23 to -0.15 0.28 to 0.42 0.26 to 0.34 -0.13 to -0.07 0.08 to 0.16 0.06 to 0.16 
Ipsilateral
Contralateral
Rule 1Rule 2Rule 3Rule 1Rule 2Rule 3
Dean, 1991b  -0.62 0.19 to 0.57 -0.26 to 0.26 -0.62 0.19 to 0.48 0-0.48 
Espenschied et al., 1993  -0.3 0.5 0 to 0.29 -0.06 0.05 0 to 0.39 
Calvitti and Beer, 2000  -0.3 0.5 0 to 0.3 – 0.05 0 to 0.45 
This study -0.23 to -0.15 0.28 to 0.42 0.26 to 0.34 -0.13 to -0.07 0.08 to 0.16 0.06 to 0.16 

Rows give the coupling strength of each coordination mechanism as used by the cited studies. In all of these studies, coupling strength was implemented as a shift of the posterior extreme position, i.e. the threshold position triggering lift-off, as a fraction of the stride length. Where ranges are given, they indicate velocity dependence of rule 2 and position-dependence of rule 3. Contralateral rule 1 of Dean(1991b) acts only between hind legs.

Note that the ranges given for this study indicate differences between legs rather than dependence on position or velocity. Moreover, as coupling strength in this study is not scaled to stride length, only relative differences among rules are of interest. A scale factor may apply to successfully implement these values in simulation.

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