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Table 2.

Temporal sequence of kinematic parameter changes during turning

Leg no.Parameterχ2r2τ
O3     
   9 Swing direction (degrees) 0.972 0.577 2.9 
   14 PEP.y (mm) 0.091 0.811 3.4 
   18 PEP.x (mm) 0.004 0.557 3.5 
   20 Stance length (mm) 0.355 0.626 4.2 
   22 Swing length (mm) 0.007 0.534 4.4 
O2     
   4 Swing direction (degrees) 0.015 0.508 2.2 
   14 AEP.y (mm) 0.070 0.634 3.4 
O1     
   2 Stance direction (degrees) 0.131 0.681 1.7 
   4 Stance length (mm) 0.595 0.415 2.2 
   4 Swing direction (degrees) 0.053 0.798 2.2 
   8 AEP.x (mm) 0.079 0.572 2.3 
   11 AEP.y (mm) 0.002 0.968 3.3 
I3     
   21 PEP.x (mm) 0.018 0.375 4.3 
I2     
   10 PEP.y (mm) 0.070 0.822 3.2 
   11 Stance direction (degrees) 0.096 0.889 3.3 
   11 Stance length (mm) 0.376 0.449 3.3 
   14 Swing direction 0.320 0.653 3.4 
   23 PEP.x (mm) 0.011 0.603 5.7 
I1     
   1 PEP.y (mm) 0.007 0.501 1.5 
   2 Stance direction (degrees) 0.188 0.906 1.7 
   4 Swing direction (degrees) 0.115 0.702 2.2 
   14 AEP.y (mm) 0.005 0.867 3.4 
   18 AEP.x (mm) 0.006 0.894 3.5 
Leg no.Parameterχ2r2τ
O3     
   9 Swing direction (degrees) 0.972 0.577 2.9 
   14 PEP.y (mm) 0.091 0.811 3.4 
   18 PEP.x (mm) 0.004 0.557 3.5 
   20 Stance length (mm) 0.355 0.626 4.2 
   22 Swing length (mm) 0.007 0.534 4.4 
O2     
   4 Swing direction (degrees) 0.015 0.508 2.2 
   14 AEP.y (mm) 0.070 0.634 3.4 
O1     
   2 Stance direction (degrees) 0.131 0.681 1.7 
   4 Stance length (mm) 0.595 0.415 2.2 
   4 Swing direction (degrees) 0.053 0.798 2.2 
   8 AEP.x (mm) 0.079 0.572 2.3 
   11 AEP.y (mm) 0.002 0.968 3.3 
I3     
   21 PEP.x (mm) 0.018 0.375 4.3 
I2     
   10 PEP.y (mm) 0.070 0.822 3.2 
   11 Stance direction (degrees) 0.096 0.889 3.3 
   11 Stance length (mm) 0.376 0.449 3.3 
   14 Swing direction 0.320 0.653 3.4 
   23 PEP.x (mm) 0.011 0.603 5.7 
I1     
   1 PEP.y (mm) 0.007 0.501 1.5 
   2 Stance direction (degrees) 0.188 0.906 1.7 
   4 Swing direction (degrees) 0.115 0.702 2.2 
   14 AEP.y (mm) 0.005 0.867 3.4 
   18 AEP.x (mm) 0.006 0.894 3.5 

Results of fitting an associative exponential function to the mean time courses of individual kinematic parameters.

Parameters are listed separately for each outer leg (O1–O3, left) and inner leg (I1–I3, right). No., assigned place in the temporal order of all changes; χ2, the ratio χ2/d.f. (reducedχ 2) that was minimised during the fitting process; r2, coefficient of determination that indicates the fraction of the variance explained by the fit; τ, time constant that determines the temporal order of changes. AEP, anterior extreme position; PEP,posterior extreme position; .x and .y, components of position vectors.

Fits with r2>0.36 and χ2<27.5 (28 d.f.) are significantly correlated (P<0.001) and statistically undistinguishable from the data (P>0.5).

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