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Table 2.

Inhibition of fluorescein accumulation by various xenobiotic compounds

Uptake rate
CompoundConcentration (mmol l-1)ControlaTreatmentbN
Insecticides     
   Malathion 0.5 94.2±3.4 85.0±10.6 
   Permethrin 0.5 89.1±1.8 76.9±5.1* 
   Chlorpyrifos 0.1 95.2±4.7 90.8±9.0 
   Chlorpyrifos 0.5 108.3±4.6 97.4±13.5 
   Carbaryl 0.25 95.2±3.1 75.4±5.1* 
Metabolites     
   Malathion oxon 0.5 86.3±1.4 88.9±5.4 
   Malathion monocarboxylic acid (isomer mixture)(MMA) 0.5 91.3±2.7 74.5±3.2* 
   MMA 93.6±4.8 38.9±7.5* 
   3-Phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA) 0.5 93.6±3.3 30.2±12.3* 
   Chlorpyrifos oxon 0.1 103.1±5.8 121.5±12.1 
   Chlorpyrifos oxon 0.5 99.9±7.2 72.6±16.6 
Herbicides     
   2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) 94.0±5.1 50.4±9.6* 
   4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)-butyric acid (2,4-DB) 95.0±4.3 -19.4±8.3* 
Plant alkaloids     
   Nicotine 0.5 100.0±12.4 77.6±9.3 
   Atropine 98.4±4.3 100.4±10.8 
   Quinine 96.0±4.9 45.0±12.6* 
Uptake rate
CompoundConcentration (mmol l-1)ControlaTreatmentbN
Insecticides     
   Malathion 0.5 94.2±3.4 85.0±10.6 
   Permethrin 0.5 89.1±1.8 76.9±5.1* 
   Chlorpyrifos 0.1 95.2±4.7 90.8±9.0 
   Chlorpyrifos 0.5 108.3±4.6 97.4±13.5 
   Carbaryl 0.25 95.2±3.1 75.4±5.1* 
Metabolites     
   Malathion oxon 0.5 86.3±1.4 88.9±5.4 
   Malathion monocarboxylic acid (isomer mixture)(MMA) 0.5 91.3±2.7 74.5±3.2* 
   MMA 93.6±4.8 38.9±7.5* 
   3-Phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA) 0.5 93.6±3.3 30.2±12.3* 
   Chlorpyrifos oxon 0.1 103.1±5.8 121.5±12.1 
   Chlorpyrifos oxon 0.5 99.9±7.2 72.6±16.6 
Herbicides     
   2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) 94.0±5.1 50.4±9.6* 
   4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)-butyric acid (2,4-DB) 95.0±4.3 -19.4±8.3* 
Plant alkaloids     
   Nicotine 0.5 100.0±12.4 77.6±9.3 
   Atropine 98.4±4.3 100.4±10.8 
   Quinine 96.0±4.9 45.0±12.6* 

All values are means ±s.e.m.N = number of tubules per sample. Negative values represent trials in which the introduction of test compound resulted in a net FL efflux from the tubule (a decrease in fluorescence).

a

Control uptake rate (in absence of inhibitor) is the rate during the second measurement period (no inhibitor) expressed as percent of uptake measured in the first measurement period. See text for details

b

Treatment uptake rate (in presence of inhibitor) during second measurement period (inhibitor present) expressed as percent of uptake measured in the first measurement period

*

Change in uptake rate in presence of inhibitor significantly different from change in uptake rate in absence of inhibitor; P<0.05, paired t-test

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