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Table 1.

Morphology and key kinematic variables for the five dogs

Dog 1Dog 2Dog 3*Dog 4Dog 5
Breed Labrador Australian shepherd Australian shepherd Springer spaniel Bull terrier 
Sex Male Male Female Male Male 
Mass (kg) 33.8 25.3 21.7 18.1 13.0 
Hindlimb (m) 0.46 0.51 0.46 0.40 0.36 
Back (m) 0.59 0.63 0.52 0.53 0.37 
Forelimb (m) 0.48 0.48 0.47 0.40 0.33 
Number of trials 10 
Mean ± 1 s.d. θhind (°) 25.3±2.2 26.7±1.2 23.4±1.6 25.4±1.7 18.2±0.9 
Mean phase ± 1 s.d. (%) 16.5±0.9 12.9±1.6 11.6±1.8 9.6±1.6 15.8±1.5 
Dog 1Dog 2Dog 3*Dog 4Dog 5
Breed Labrador Australian shepherd Australian shepherd Springer spaniel Bull terrier 
Sex Male Male Female Male Male 
Mass (kg) 33.8 25.3 21.7 18.1 13.0 
Hindlimb (m) 0.46 0.51 0.46 0.40 0.36 
Back (m) 0.59 0.63 0.52 0.53 0.37 
Forelimb (m) 0.48 0.48 0.47 0.40 0.33 
Number of trials 10 
Mean ± 1 s.d. θhind (°) 25.3±2.2 26.7±1.2 23.4±1.6 25.4±1.7 18.2±0.9 
Mean phase ± 1 s.d. (%) 16.5±0.9 12.9±1.6 11.6±1.8 9.6±1.6 15.8±1.5 
*

The dog for which example trials of very slow, slow and moderate walking(Fig. 3) were taken

Excluded from Fig. 4 as energy recovery was <50% throughout the Froude number range; this dog exhibited a `bouncing gait' even when kinematically walking

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