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Table 2.

Summary of skeletal abnormalities

Al-/-γ-/-Al-/-γ+/-Al-/-*γ-/-†
Vertebral malformations in cervical region     
Exoccipital-C1 neural arch fusion - +§ ++ 
Exoccipital-C1 AAA fusion** 
C1 bifidus 
C2 bibidus ++ 
C1-C2 fusion 
C2-C3 fusion 
Tracheal rings fused/disrupted +++ +++ 
Posterior vertebral transformations     
C5 to C6 ++ +++ ++ 
C7 to T1 +++ +++ +++ 
T1 to T2 ++ ++ +++ 
Anterior vertebral transformations     
C2 to C1 
C6 to C5 
C7 to C6 
T8 to T7 
L1 to T13 ++ ++ 
Al-/-γ-/-Al-/-γ+/-Al-/-*γ-/-†
Vertebral malformations in cervical region     
Exoccipital-C1 neural arch fusion - +§ ++ 
Exoccipital-C1 AAA fusion** 
C1 bifidus 
C2 bibidus ++ 
C1-C2 fusion 
C2-C3 fusion 
Tracheal rings fused/disrupted +++ +++ 
Posterior vertebral transformations     
C5 to C6 ++ +++ ++ 
C7 to T1 +++ +++ +++ 
T1 to T2 ++ ++ +++ 
Anterior vertebral transformations     
C2 to C1 
C6 to C5 
C7 to C6 
T8 to T7 
L1 to T13 ++ ++ 
*

Our previous (Abu-Abed et al.,2001) and present observations.Lohnes et al.,1993; 8% ofγ +/- animals showed T8 to T7 transformations only. Not observed.§Observed in less than half.

Observed in more than half. **Anterior arch of atlas.††Observed in all specimens.

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