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Table 2.

Description of all the complementation groups

Mutant classNameNumber of allelesAllele namesGermline clone phenotypeTrans-heterozygous phenotypePenetrance*
oskar mRNA absent from the posterior of the oocyte
 
franklin (frk)
 
2
 
5E7-2, 6F2-18
 
osk diffuse. 6F2-18 shows additional defects including nurse cells in the oocyte and a weak dumpless phenotype.
 
lethal
 
+
 
 lkb1
 
2
 
4A4-2, 4B1-11
 
osk mainly diffuse, bcd detected around the whole oocyte cortex in some oocytes.
 
lethal
 
++
 
 vagabond (vag)
 
2
 
7A1-3, 8D4-17
 
osk anterior and diffuse, follicle cells disorganised, accumulation of actin in the oocyte, very few late stages, oocyte nucleus occasionally mispositioned.
 
female-sterile: a few ventralised eggs are laid
 
+++
 
 errance (era)
 
7
 
3A3-1, 4A4-18, 4E8-5, 5C5-8, 6D1-9, 7G2-9, 9B3-15
 
osk diffuse or in reduced amounts at the P, oocyte nucleus can be mislocalised, nurse cells fused or present in the oocyte, ectopic accumulation of actin, small eggs.
 
lethal
 
+++, allele-dependent
 
 strindberg (sbg)
 
2
 
5D3-3, 6B9-4
 
osk diffuse (in 5D3-3, osk accumulates in the centre at stage 9), oocyte nucleus can be mislocalised.
 
female-sterile: eggs either unfertilised or arrested early in development
 
+++
 
 fraenkel (fkl)
 
2
 
4B2-7, 5B3-7
 
osk in a central dot near the P, more diffuse in later stages.
 
lethal
 
++
 
 sverdrup (sve)
 
2
 
6F6-9, 8D1-7
 
osk central or diffuse, some eggs small or with fused dorsal appendages. In 8D1-7, very rare oocytes with aberrant bcdlocalisation.
 
lethal
 
+++
 
 poulpe (pup)
 
3
 
4B4-10, 4F2-4, 6C3-11
 
osk in a central dot or diffuse. In 4B4-10, bcd and the nucleus very rarely detected at the posterior. In 6C3-11, nurse cells in the oocyte in late stages.
 
lethal
 
+++
 
 wellman (wel)
 
2
 
8A6-5, 9H4-17
 
osk central, follicle cells disorganised and migrate between the oocyte and the nurse cells, oocyte too small. In 9H4-17, no late stages.
 
lethal
 
+++
 
 orb
 
4
 
7D1-16, 7D4-11, 7E4-5, 9D6-3
 
osk diffuse, premature cytoplasmic streaming.
 
female-sterile
 
+++
 
 spindle-E (spn-E)
 
6
 
2A9-14, 4E2-14, 7G2-5, 8D4-11, 9A2-17, 9A9-18
 
osk diffuse or in the centre of the oocyte, bcd mRNA seen at the posterior at stage 8 in 2A9-14. 9A9-18 is a weaker allele. Premature cytoplasmic streaming.
 
female-sterile
 
+++, allele-dependent
 
 D-elg
 
1
 
8C5-5
 
osk diffuse, dumpless.
 
female-sterile
 
+++
 
oskar mRNA present at the posterior of the oocyte, but not in a wild-type manner
 
glissade (gls)
 
3
 
7B7-18, 7F1-16, 9C9-3
 
osk at the P but diffuse, nurse cell fusions, dumpless.
 
lethal
 
+++
 
 sedov (sdv)
 
2
 
7D2-10, 9C1-2
 
osk diffuses from the P, nurse cell fusions, follicle cells disorganised. In rare cases, extra follicle cells are found between the oocyte and the nurse cells.
 
lethal
 
+++
 
 koldewey (kol)
 
2
 
4A2-13, 9B6-2
 
reduced amounts of osk at the P. In 4A2-13, additional defects such as nurse cell fusions and small eggs.
 
lethal
 
+++
 
 oskar (osk)
 
2
 
6B3-12, 8B1-2
 
In 8B1-2, osk at the posterior until stage 10, and then diffuse. In 6B3-12, osk is sometimes mislocalised even earlier.
 
maternal-effect lethal
 
+++
 
bicoid mRNA diffuse late
 
larsen (lsn)
 
2
 
2B6-3, 5F3-8
 
bcd diffuse (late), osk localisation wild-type but might be in reduced amounts.
 
lethal
 
+++
 
 gerlache (grl)
 
2
 
1A7-16, 8A7-15
 
very reduced anterior bcd localisation, GFP-Staufen retained at ring canals, dumpless.
 
female-sterile: very small unfertilised eggs
 
+++
 
 sorcière (sorc)
 
2
 
4E5-2, 7B6-14
 
very reduced anterior bcd localisation, GFP-Staufen retained at ring canals, dumpless.
 
female-sterile: very small unfertilised eggs
 
+++
 
both oskar and bicoid mRNA localisations affected
 
boussole (bsl)
 
2
 
8B8-9, 8F8-6
 
osk central or diffuse. In 8F8-6, bcd and the nucleus are occasionally detected at the posterior.
 
lethal
 
+
 
 nansen (nan)
 
3
 
4E7-9, 7G2-18, 8A4-1
 
osk diffuse or central, nucleus occassionally mislocalised, bcd sometimes at the P or lateral near nucleus, ectopic actin in oocyte.
 
lethal
 
+++
 
 abruzzi (abz)
 
2
 
7C3-10, 8B1-12
 
osk in dots near the P, nucleus mislocalised, bcd near the nucleus, dumpless eggs, some actin in oocyte.
 
lethal
 
+++
 
both oskar and bicoid mRNA localisations affected
 
weyprecht (wey)
 
2
 
9B5-5, 9C1-1
 
osk in broad cloud at P or central, bcd along lateral cortex. In 9B5-5, some follicle cell defects.
 
female-sterile: early oogenic arrest at about stage 5
 
+
 
 trou
 
5
 
1A2-4, 7E4-3, 9A5-5, 9C8-7, 9E4-15
 
frequent gap between oocyte and posterior follicle cells, variable osk and bcd localisation: osk in general diffuse with stronger P localisation, bcd cortical or diffuse.
 
semi-lethal and female-sterile: very small unfertilised eggs
 
+++
 
 mertz (mez)
 
2
 
7E2-8, 8D7-7
 
bcd initially wild type, diffuse from stage 11-12. Reduced amounts of osk at the P, small eggs. 7E2-8 is a weaker allele.
 
lethal
 
++
 
 ellsworth (els)
 
4
 
7B2-16, 7F5-9, 9D5-4, 9G8-14
 
osk at the anterior or diffuse or in reduced amounts at the P, bcd diffuse in late stages, nurse cell-oocyte fusions.
 
female-sterile: unfertilised eggs, escapers often show embryonic head defects
 
++
 
 cap-n-collar (cnc)
 
3
 
5F8-5, 7G2-10, 8A1-14
 
osk largely diffuse, nucleus mislocalised, bcd near the nucleus.
 
lethal
 
+++
 
other phenotypes nain 4A3-6, 6A2-4 tiny oocyte, which can be slightly misplaced. Rare 4A3-6 late stage escapers. lethal +++ 
Mutant classNameNumber of allelesAllele namesGermline clone phenotypeTrans-heterozygous phenotypePenetrance*
oskar mRNA absent from the posterior of the oocyte
 
franklin (frk)
 
2
 
5E7-2, 6F2-18
 
osk diffuse. 6F2-18 shows additional defects including nurse cells in the oocyte and a weak dumpless phenotype.
 
lethal
 
+
 
 lkb1
 
2
 
4A4-2, 4B1-11
 
osk mainly diffuse, bcd detected around the whole oocyte cortex in some oocytes.
 
lethal
 
++
 
 vagabond (vag)
 
2
 
7A1-3, 8D4-17
 
osk anterior and diffuse, follicle cells disorganised, accumulation of actin in the oocyte, very few late stages, oocyte nucleus occasionally mispositioned.
 
female-sterile: a few ventralised eggs are laid
 
+++
 
 errance (era)
 
7
 
3A3-1, 4A4-18, 4E8-5, 5C5-8, 6D1-9, 7G2-9, 9B3-15
 
osk diffuse or in reduced amounts at the P, oocyte nucleus can be mislocalised, nurse cells fused or present in the oocyte, ectopic accumulation of actin, small eggs.
 
lethal
 
+++, allele-dependent
 
 strindberg (sbg)
 
2
 
5D3-3, 6B9-4
 
osk diffuse (in 5D3-3, osk accumulates in the centre at stage 9), oocyte nucleus can be mislocalised.
 
female-sterile: eggs either unfertilised or arrested early in development
 
+++
 
 fraenkel (fkl)
 
2
 
4B2-7, 5B3-7
 
osk in a central dot near the P, more diffuse in later stages.
 
lethal
 
++
 
 sverdrup (sve)
 
2
 
6F6-9, 8D1-7
 
osk central or diffuse, some eggs small or with fused dorsal appendages. In 8D1-7, very rare oocytes with aberrant bcdlocalisation.
 
lethal
 
+++
 
 poulpe (pup)
 
3
 
4B4-10, 4F2-4, 6C3-11
 
osk in a central dot or diffuse. In 4B4-10, bcd and the nucleus very rarely detected at the posterior. In 6C3-11, nurse cells in the oocyte in late stages.
 
lethal
 
+++
 
 wellman (wel)
 
2
 
8A6-5, 9H4-17
 
osk central, follicle cells disorganised and migrate between the oocyte and the nurse cells, oocyte too small. In 9H4-17, no late stages.
 
lethal
 
+++
 
 orb
 
4
 
7D1-16, 7D4-11, 7E4-5, 9D6-3
 
osk diffuse, premature cytoplasmic streaming.
 
female-sterile
 
+++
 
 spindle-E (spn-E)
 
6
 
2A9-14, 4E2-14, 7G2-5, 8D4-11, 9A2-17, 9A9-18
 
osk diffuse or in the centre of the oocyte, bcd mRNA seen at the posterior at stage 8 in 2A9-14. 9A9-18 is a weaker allele. Premature cytoplasmic streaming.
 
female-sterile
 
+++, allele-dependent
 
 D-elg
 
1
 
8C5-5
 
osk diffuse, dumpless.
 
female-sterile
 
+++
 
oskar mRNA present at the posterior of the oocyte, but not in a wild-type manner
 
glissade (gls)
 
3
 
7B7-18, 7F1-16, 9C9-3
 
osk at the P but diffuse, nurse cell fusions, dumpless.
 
lethal
 
+++
 
 sedov (sdv)
 
2
 
7D2-10, 9C1-2
 
osk diffuses from the P, nurse cell fusions, follicle cells disorganised. In rare cases, extra follicle cells are found between the oocyte and the nurse cells.
 
lethal
 
+++
 
 koldewey (kol)
 
2
 
4A2-13, 9B6-2
 
reduced amounts of osk at the P. In 4A2-13, additional defects such as nurse cell fusions and small eggs.
 
lethal
 
+++
 
 oskar (osk)
 
2
 
6B3-12, 8B1-2
 
In 8B1-2, osk at the posterior until stage 10, and then diffuse. In 6B3-12, osk is sometimes mislocalised even earlier.
 
maternal-effect lethal
 
+++
 
bicoid mRNA diffuse late
 
larsen (lsn)
 
2
 
2B6-3, 5F3-8
 
bcd diffuse (late), osk localisation wild-type but might be in reduced amounts.
 
lethal
 
+++
 
 gerlache (grl)
 
2
 
1A7-16, 8A7-15
 
very reduced anterior bcd localisation, GFP-Staufen retained at ring canals, dumpless.
 
female-sterile: very small unfertilised eggs
 
+++
 
 sorcière (sorc)
 
2
 
4E5-2, 7B6-14
 
very reduced anterior bcd localisation, GFP-Staufen retained at ring canals, dumpless.
 
female-sterile: very small unfertilised eggs
 
+++
 
both oskar and bicoid mRNA localisations affected
 
boussole (bsl)
 
2
 
8B8-9, 8F8-6
 
osk central or diffuse. In 8F8-6, bcd and the nucleus are occasionally detected at the posterior.
 
lethal
 
+
 
 nansen (nan)
 
3
 
4E7-9, 7G2-18, 8A4-1
 
osk diffuse or central, nucleus occassionally mislocalised, bcd sometimes at the P or lateral near nucleus, ectopic actin in oocyte.
 
lethal
 
+++
 
 abruzzi (abz)
 
2
 
7C3-10, 8B1-12
 
osk in dots near the P, nucleus mislocalised, bcd near the nucleus, dumpless eggs, some actin in oocyte.
 
lethal
 
+++
 
both oskar and bicoid mRNA localisations affected
 
weyprecht (wey)
 
2
 
9B5-5, 9C1-1
 
osk in broad cloud at P or central, bcd along lateral cortex. In 9B5-5, some follicle cell defects.
 
female-sterile: early oogenic arrest at about stage 5
 
+
 
 trou
 
5
 
1A2-4, 7E4-3, 9A5-5, 9C8-7, 9E4-15
 
frequent gap between oocyte and posterior follicle cells, variable osk and bcd localisation: osk in general diffuse with stronger P localisation, bcd cortical or diffuse.
 
semi-lethal and female-sterile: very small unfertilised eggs
 
+++
 
 mertz (mez)
 
2
 
7E2-8, 8D7-7
 
bcd initially wild type, diffuse from stage 11-12. Reduced amounts of osk at the P, small eggs. 7E2-8 is a weaker allele.
 
lethal
 
++
 
 ellsworth (els)
 
4
 
7B2-16, 7F5-9, 9D5-4, 9G8-14
 
osk at the anterior or diffuse or in reduced amounts at the P, bcd diffuse in late stages, nurse cell-oocyte fusions.
 
female-sterile: unfertilised eggs, escapers often show embryonic head defects
 
++
 
 cap-n-collar (cnc)
 
3
 
5F8-5, 7G2-10, 8A1-14
 
osk largely diffuse, nucleus mislocalised, bcd near the nucleus.
 
lethal
 
+++
 
other phenotypes nain 4A3-6, 6A2-4 tiny oocyte, which can be slightly misplaced. Rare 4A3-6 late stage escapers. lethal +++ 

P, posterior; osk, oskar; bcd, bicoid.

*

Penetrance of the germline clone phenotype:+indicates that the phenotype was visible in 50% of the oocytes or less; ++ in 50-80%; +++ in 80% or more. However, these estimates should be treated with caution as the sample size was generally smaller than 50.

To reflect the fact most of these mutants disrupt GFP-Staufen localisation to the anterior and/or posterior pole of the oocyte, many complementation groups were named after polar explorers who failed to reach the North or South Pole.

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