Table 2.

Jumping performance of short- and long-legged leafhoppers

Species (N)Time to take-off (ms)Take-off linear velocity (m s–1)Take-off angular velocity (deg. s–1)Mass (mg)Length (mm)Acceleration (m s–1)Acceleration (g)Translational energy (μJ)Rotational energy (μJ)Power (mW)Force (mN)Energy/mass (μJ mg–1)Power/muscle mass* [mW mg–1 (W kg–1)]
Formulae t V 57.3ω m l a=V/t g=a/9.86 e=0.5 mV2 erot=ml2ω2/24 p=(e+erot)/t F=ma (e+erot)/m p/(0.11 m
Short-legged              
   Cephalelus              
      Average (6) 2.1±0.08 1.6±0.2 2624 9.2 13.4 762 77 12 0.14 5.7 7.0 1.3 5.6 (5600) 
      Best 4003 11.4  1000 101 23 0.42 12 11 2.0 9.3 (9300) 
   Ulopa              
      Average (6) 1.5±0.04 1.9±0.2 28190 2.1 3.1 1267 128 3.8 0.20 2.7 2.7 1.9 12 (12000) 
      Best 2.3 33347 2.5  2300 233 6.6 0.34 7.0 5.8 2.8 25 (25000) 
Long-legged              
   Empoasca(7) 4.7±0.1 1.1±0.11 2177 0.86 3.5 234 24 0.5 0.001 0.1 0.2 0.6 1.2 (1200) 
   Aphrodes(43) 4.4±0.18 2.5±0.09 3846 18.4 8.5 568 58 58 0.25 13 11 3.1 6.5 (6500) 
   Cicadella (♂)(10) 6.4±0.21 1.2±0.13 3505 10.9 6.4 188 19 7.8 0.07 1.2 2.0 0.7 1.0 (1000) 
   Graphocephala (16) 5.6±0.25 1.6±0.07 – 13 9.0 286 29 17 – 3.0 3.7 1.3 2.1 (2100) 
   Iassus (nymph) (1) 2.5 – 4.3 800 81 – 3.2 3.2 2.0 7.3 (7300) 
Species (N)Time to take-off (ms)Take-off linear velocity (m s–1)Take-off angular velocity (deg. s–1)Mass (mg)Length (mm)Acceleration (m s–1)Acceleration (g)Translational energy (μJ)Rotational energy (μJ)Power (mW)Force (mN)Energy/mass (μJ mg–1)Power/muscle mass* [mW mg–1 (W kg–1)]
Formulae t V 57.3ω m l a=V/t g=a/9.86 e=0.5 mV2 erot=ml2ω2/24 p=(e+erot)/t F=ma (e+erot)/m p/(0.11 m
Short-legged              
   Cephalelus              
      Average (6) 2.1±0.08 1.6±0.2 2624 9.2 13.4 762 77 12 0.14 5.7 7.0 1.3 5.6 (5600) 
      Best 4003 11.4  1000 101 23 0.42 12 11 2.0 9.3 (9300) 
   Ulopa              
      Average (6) 1.5±0.04 1.9±0.2 28190 2.1 3.1 1267 128 3.8 0.20 2.7 2.7 1.9 12 (12000) 
      Best 2.3 33347 2.5  2300 233 6.6 0.34 7.0 5.8 2.8 25 (25000) 
Long-legged              
   Empoasca(7) 4.7±0.1 1.1±0.11 2177 0.86 3.5 234 24 0.5 0.001 0.1 0.2 0.6 1.2 (1200) 
   Aphrodes(43) 4.4±0.18 2.5±0.09 3846 18.4 8.5 568 58 58 0.25 13 11 3.1 6.5 (6500) 
   Cicadella (♂)(10) 6.4±0.21 1.2±0.13 3505 10.9 6.4 188 19 7.8 0.07 1.2 2.0 0.7 1.0 (1000) 
   Graphocephala (16) 5.6±0.25 1.6±0.07 – 13 9.0 286 29 17 – 3.0 3.7 1.3 2.1 (2100) 
   Iassus (nymph) (1) 2.5 – 4.3 800 81 – 3.2 3.2 2.0 7.3 (7300) 
*

Extensor muscle mass is approximately 11% of body mass

Data from Burrows (Burrows,2007b)

Data from Brackenbury (Brackenbury,1996)

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