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Table 1.

Overview of the measured angles of the muscle fibres (θ) with the longitudinal zf-axis for the examined developmental stages

Stage (d.p.f.)
234153951
n 127 166 146 128 312 235 
\(\overline{{\theta}}\)
(degrees) 
12.92 7.80 12.96 15.06 17.82 20.70 
σθ (degrees) 6.57 4.25 5.94 7.19 8.51 8.80 
θmax (degrees) 28.03 20.53 26.33 38.38 38.59 40.68 
θmin (degrees) 0.25 1.07 0.62 1.65 0.00 0.00 
popt,Icc 2.30 2.60 2.25 1.40 1.50 1.40 
popt,Icv 2.50 3.00 2.15 1.50 1.55 1.60 
popt,IIcc 2.60 3.00 2.65 1.55 1.95 2.85 
popt,IIcv 2.55 2.90 2.50 1.60 1.95 2.30 
γmax,opt,Icc (degrees) 50.0 50.0 33.0 41.0 28.5 26.0 
γmax,opt,Icv (degrees) 50.0 50.0 29.5 36.5 25.0 23.0 
γmax,opt,IIcc (degrees) 50.0 50.0 33.5 37.5 29.5 25.0 
γmax,opt,IIcv (degrees) 50.0 50.0 34.5 38.5 29.0 25.5 
Stage (d.p.f.)
234153951
n 127 166 146 128 312 235 
\(\overline{{\theta}}\)
(degrees) 
12.92 7.80 12.96 15.06 17.82 20.70 
σθ (degrees) 6.57 4.25 5.94 7.19 8.51 8.80 
θmax (degrees) 28.03 20.53 26.33 38.38 38.59 40.68 
θmin (degrees) 0.25 1.07 0.62 1.65 0.00 0.00 
popt,Icc 2.30 2.60 2.25 1.40 1.50 1.40 
popt,Icv 2.50 3.00 2.15 1.50 1.55 1.60 
popt,IIcc 2.60 3.00 2.65 1.55 1.95 2.85 
popt,IIcv 2.55 2.90 2.50 1.60 1.95 2.30 
γmax,opt,Icc (degrees) 50.0 50.0 33.0 41.0 28.5 26.0 
γmax,opt,Icv (degrees) 50.0 50.0 29.5 36.5 25.0 23.0 
γmax,opt,IIcc (degrees) 50.0 50.0 33.5 37.5 29.5 25.0 
γmax,opt,IIcv (degrees) 50.0 50.0 34.5 38.5 29.0 25.5 

n, number of muscle fibre measured;

\(\overline{{\theta}}\)
is mean of θ; σθ, standard deviation in θ;θ max, maximum value of θ; θmin,minimum value of θ. popt,Icc andγ max,opt refer to values of exponent and shear-angle amplitude at medial plane (Eqn 25) that result in the best strain uniformity (smallest value for|η|) for a normalized curvature of 5. The I and II in the subscripts refer to deformation type I and II, while cc and cv indicate the concave side and the convex side. For 2 d.p.f. and 3 d.p.f., γmax,optrepresents the maximum value that was used in the simulation

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