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Table 1.

Anatomical landmarks used to approximate joint centers of rotation

JointAnatomical landmark
Shoulder Midpoint between the acromion process of the scapula and the greater tubercle of the humerus 
Elbow Midpoint between the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and the lateral aspect of the radial head 
Wrist Radial styloid process 
Hip Greater trochanter of the femur 
Knee Midpoint between the lateral epicondyle of the femur and the lateral condyle of the tibia 
Ankle Lateral malleolus of the fibula 
JointAnatomical landmark
Shoulder Midpoint between the acromion process of the scapula and the greater tubercle of the humerus 
Elbow Midpoint between the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and the lateral aspect of the radial head 
Wrist Radial styloid process 
Hip Greater trochanter of the femur 
Knee Midpoint between the lateral epicondyle of the femur and the lateral condyle of the tibia 
Ankle Lateral malleolus of the fibula 
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