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Table 3.

Byssal thread material properties

Species (N)Yield stress (MPa)Strength (MPa)Initial stiffness (MPa)Final stiffness (MPa)ExtensibilityToughness (Jm–3)
Geukensia demissa (19) 23.9±4.2A 140.8±18.7A 324.7±60.8A 319.1±45.2A 0.637±0.018A,B 43.3±5.6 
Modiolus modiolus (20) 35.5±5.8A,B 287.8±35.6B 593.3±94.6B 1039.6±129.0B 0.571±0.024A 67.4±8.5 
Mytilus californianus (21) 33.0±2.9A,B 215.3±25.3A,B 432.3±45.5A,B 810.0±93.9B 0.640±0.016A,B 51.7±5.9 
Mytilus edulis (25) 44.4±6.6B 216.9±18.8A,B 328.6±30.8A 784.4±62.7B 0.669±0.017B 56.9±6.3 
ANOVA, P-value 0.0298 0.0023 0.0068 <0.0001 0.0042 0.1060 
Kruskal–Wallis, P-value 0.0057 0.0044 0.0079 <0.0001 0.0030 0.1828 
Scheffe test, P-value 0.0345 0.0023 <0.0310 <0.0040 0.0050 n.a. 
Species (N)Yield stress (MPa)Strength (MPa)Initial stiffness (MPa)Final stiffness (MPa)ExtensibilityToughness (Jm–3)
Geukensia demissa (19) 23.9±4.2A 140.8±18.7A 324.7±60.8A 319.1±45.2A 0.637±0.018A,B 43.3±5.6 
Modiolus modiolus (20) 35.5±5.8A,B 287.8±35.6B 593.3±94.6B 1039.6±129.0B 0.571±0.024A 67.4±8.5 
Mytilus californianus (21) 33.0±2.9A,B 215.3±25.3A,B 432.3±45.5A,B 810.0±93.9B 0.640±0.016A,B 51.7±5.9 
Mytilus edulis (25) 44.4±6.6B 216.9±18.8A,B 328.6±30.8A 784.4±62.7B 0.669±0.017B 56.9±6.3 
ANOVA, P-value 0.0298 0.0023 0.0068 <0.0001 0.0042 0.1060 
Kruskal–Wallis, P-value 0.0057 0.0044 0.0079 <0.0001 0.0030 0.1828 
Scheffe test, P-value 0.0345 0.0023 <0.0310 <0.0040 0.0050 n.a. 

Values given are means ± s.e.m. P-values in bold are significant. For each property apart from toughness, the null hypothesis of similar values across species was robustly rejected (ANOVA and Kruskal–Wallis). In each column, values marked with the same superscript letter are not significantly different from one another (Scheffe test). Because the yield point was not obvious in all tests, only 12 M. edulis, 13 M. modiolus and 20 M. californianus data points were used in the analysis for yield stress

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