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Table 1.

Comparison between the energetic cost of the electric signal of the gymnotiform B. pinnicaudatus and the Acoustic signals of various representative taxa

Species nameCommon nameNMean mass (g)Signal typeO2 signal (ml O2 g–1 h–1)O2 resting (ml O2 g–1 h–1)Factorial scope(O2,signal/O2,resting)Ref.
Insecta – Orthoptera         
   Anurogryllus arboreus Trilling short-tailed cricket 12, 8 0.40 Acoustic call 3.576 0.315 11.35 
   Anurogryllus muticus Trilling cricket 0.40 Acoustic call 9.06 1.7 5.33 
   Gryllotalpa australis Trilling cricket 0.87 Acoustic call 4.883 0.42 11.63 
   Oecanthus celerinictus Trilling tree cricket 5, 12 0.05 Acoustic call 2.931 0.437 6.71 
   Oecanthus quadripunctatus Trilling tree cricket 9, 12 0.05 Acoustic call 3.342 0.476 7.02 
   Teleogryllus commodus Chirping cricket  Acoustic call 1.17 0.85 1.38 
   Teleogryllus oceanicus Chirping cricket  Acoustic call 0.27 1.25 0.22 
   Gryllus lineaticeps Chirping variable field cricket 16 0.53 Acoustic call 0.774 0.464 1.67 
   Euconocephalus nasutus Trilling katydid 12 0.68 Acoustic call 15.79 2.61 6.05 11 
   Neoconocephalus robustus Trilling katydid 0.88 Acoustic call 13.88 1.92 7.23 11 
Insecta – Lepidoptera         
   Achroia grisella Lesser wax moth 108 0.01 Ultrasonic call 2.32 1.34 1.73 10 
Osteichthyes–Gymnotiformes         
   Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus Gymnotiform fish 10 14.1 EOD 0.074 0.014 5.29 This study 
Amphibia – Anura         
   Hyla cinerea Green treefrog 10 5.1 Acoustic call 0.77 0.135 5.70 
   Hyla gratiosa Barking treefrog 10 12.5 Acoustic call 1.12 0.105 10.67 
   Hyla squirella Squirrel treefrog 2.6 Acoustic call 2.11 0.14 15.07 
   Hyla versicolor Gray treefrog 13 8.62 Acoustic call 0.96 0.08 12.00 12 
   Hyperolius viridiflavus ommatostictus Reed frog 18 1.4 Acoustic call 1.11 0.29 3.83 
   Physalaemus pustulosus Túngara frog 10, 9 1.7 Acoustic call 0.35 0.31 1.13 
Aves         
   Thryothorus ludovicianus Carolina wren 21 Song 9.3 3.56 2.61 
   Gallus gallus domesticus Domestic rooster 13 1930 Crowing 0.15 1.02 0.15 
Species nameCommon nameNMean mass (g)Signal typeO2 signal (ml O2 g–1 h–1)O2 resting (ml O2 g–1 h–1)Factorial scope(O2,signal/O2,resting)Ref.
Insecta – Orthoptera         
   Anurogryllus arboreus Trilling short-tailed cricket 12, 8 0.40 Acoustic call 3.576 0.315 11.35 
   Anurogryllus muticus Trilling cricket 0.40 Acoustic call 9.06 1.7 5.33 
   Gryllotalpa australis Trilling cricket 0.87 Acoustic call 4.883 0.42 11.63 
   Oecanthus celerinictus Trilling tree cricket 5, 12 0.05 Acoustic call 2.931 0.437 6.71 
   Oecanthus quadripunctatus Trilling tree cricket 9, 12 0.05 Acoustic call 3.342 0.476 7.02 
   Teleogryllus commodus Chirping cricket  Acoustic call 1.17 0.85 1.38 
   Teleogryllus oceanicus Chirping cricket  Acoustic call 0.27 1.25 0.22 
   Gryllus lineaticeps Chirping variable field cricket 16 0.53 Acoustic call 0.774 0.464 1.67 
   Euconocephalus nasutus Trilling katydid 12 0.68 Acoustic call 15.79 2.61 6.05 11 
   Neoconocephalus robustus Trilling katydid 0.88 Acoustic call 13.88 1.92 7.23 11 
Insecta – Lepidoptera         
   Achroia grisella Lesser wax moth 108 0.01 Ultrasonic call 2.32 1.34 1.73 10 
Osteichthyes–Gymnotiformes         
   Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus Gymnotiform fish 10 14.1 EOD 0.074 0.014 5.29 This study 
Amphibia – Anura         
   Hyla cinerea Green treefrog 10 5.1 Acoustic call 0.77 0.135 5.70 
   Hyla gratiosa Barking treefrog 10 12.5 Acoustic call 1.12 0.105 10.67 
   Hyla squirella Squirrel treefrog 2.6 Acoustic call 2.11 0.14 15.07 
   Hyla versicolor Gray treefrog 13 8.62 Acoustic call 0.96 0.08 12.00 12 
   Hyperolius viridiflavus ommatostictus Reed frog 18 1.4 Acoustic call 1.11 0.29 3.83 
   Physalaemus pustulosus Túngara frog 10, 9 1.7 Acoustic call 0.35 0.31 1.13 
Aves         
   Thryothorus ludovicianus Carolina wren 21 Song 9.3 3.56 2.61 
   Gallus gallus domesticus Domestic rooster 13 1930 Crowing 0.15 1.02 0.15 

O2,signal,signaling cost, i.e. metabolic rate during signalling; O2,resting,metabolic rate during resting; EOD, electric organ discharge; N,number of subjects tested. Whenever more than one N value is provided, the first N value corresponds to O2,signal and the second to O2,resting. Signaling factorial scope(O2,signal/O2,resting)was calculated to determine how much metabolism had increased during calling when compared with rest. For poikilotherms, O2 data were obtained at a mean temperature of 25°C across all studies included here. References (Ref.): 1 (Bucher et al.,1982), 2 (Eberhardt,1994), 3 (Grafe et al.,1992), 4 (Hoback and Wagner,1997), 5 (Horn et al.,1995), 6 (Kavanagh,1987), 7 (Lee and Loher,1993), 8 (Prestwich and Walker, 1981), 9 (Prestwich et al., 1989), 10 (Reinhold et al., 1998), 11 (Stevens and Josephson, 1977), 12 (Taigen and Wells, 1985)

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