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Table 2.

Lengths, strains, and contribution to total change of lengths of muscle–tendon units, muscle fascicles and tendons

Muscle–tendon unitMuscle fasciclesTendons
Shortest in vivo length (cm) 40.1±1.8 – – 
Slack length (cm) 42.3±1.5 3.3±0.5 39.5±1.6 
Pennation at slack length (deg.) – 32.2±7.7 – 
Maximum length (cm) 49.1±2.2 6.2±1.1 43.1±2.0 
Pennation at maximum length (deg.) – 17.2±4.8 – 
Maximum change in length (or, for muscle fascicles, longitudinal displacement)from slack length (cm) 6.7±1.9 3.1±0.9 3.6±1.6 
Maximum strain (%) 16.0±4.5 86.4±26.8 9.2±4.1 
Contribution to total change in muscle–tendon length (%) 100 47.6±11.7 52.4±11.7 
Muscle–tendon unitMuscle fasciclesTendons
Shortest in vivo length (cm) 40.1±1.8 – – 
Slack length (cm) 42.3±1.5 3.3±0.5 39.5±1.6 
Pennation at slack length (deg.) – 32.2±7.7 – 
Maximum length (cm) 49.1±2.2 6.2±1.1 43.1±2.0 
Pennation at maximum length (deg.) – 17.2±4.8 – 
Maximum change in length (or, for muscle fascicles, longitudinal displacement)from slack length (cm) 6.7±1.9 3.1±0.9 3.6±1.6 
Maximum strain (%) 16.0±4.5 86.4±26.8 9.2±4.1 
Contribution to total change in muscle–tendon length (%) 100 47.6±11.7 52.4±11.7 

Data are means ± s.d. of the six subjects for whom muscle fascicle slack lengths could be measured

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