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Table 1.

Effect of hydrostatic pressure on the wavelength of maximum absorbance(λmax) of difference spectra of visual pigment extracts from 12 species of deep-sea fish, from a range of depths and habitats

SpeciesNCapture depth (m)Previously measured λmax (nm)Average intercept λmax (nm)Average gradient (nm MPa-1)Average λmax shift (0.1–40 MPa) (nm)
Alepocephalus agassizii Goode and Bean 1883 1375 4771 483.09 0.02772 1.1 
Antimora rostrata (Günther 1878) 1102 475, 4832 489.54 0.03261 1.3 
Bathysaurus ferox Günther 1878 1342 4811 484.64 0.02194 0.9 
Borostomias antarcticus (Lönnberg 1905) 800 4853 490.72 0.02105 0.8 
Coryphaenoides (N.) armatus (Hector 1987) 2750 4811 488.66 0.04120 1.6 
Coryphaenoides guentheri (Vaillant 1888) 1401 4791 494.69 0.03907 1.6 
Electrona carlsbergi (Tåning 1932) 295 4853 481.62 0.05908 2.4 
Gymnoscopelus fraseri (Fraser-Brunner 1931) 45 4883 489.80 0.02946 1.2 
Lepidion eques (Günther 1887) 700 476, 4842 500.32 0.03548 1.4 
Nannobrachium achirus (Andriashev 1962) 940 4863 487.11 0.02906 1.2 
Nezumia aequalis (Günther 1878) 782 4841 488.80 0.03744 1.5 
Protomyctophum choriodon Hulley 1981 150 4833 481.66 0.03205 1.3 
SpeciesNCapture depth (m)Previously measured λmax (nm)Average intercept λmax (nm)Average gradient (nm MPa-1)Average λmax shift (0.1–40 MPa) (nm)
Alepocephalus agassizii Goode and Bean 1883 1375 4771 483.09 0.02772 1.1 
Antimora rostrata (Günther 1878) 1102 475, 4832 489.54 0.03261 1.3 
Bathysaurus ferox Günther 1878 1342 4811 484.64 0.02194 0.9 
Borostomias antarcticus (Lönnberg 1905) 800 4853 490.72 0.02105 0.8 
Coryphaenoides (N.) armatus (Hector 1987) 2750 4811 488.66 0.04120 1.6 
Coryphaenoides guentheri (Vaillant 1888) 1401 4791 494.69 0.03907 1.6 
Electrona carlsbergi (Tåning 1932) 295 4853 481.62 0.05908 2.4 
Gymnoscopelus fraseri (Fraser-Brunner 1931) 45 4883 489.80 0.02946 1.2 
Lepidion eques (Günther 1887) 700 476, 4842 500.32 0.03548 1.4 
Nannobrachium achirus (Andriashev 1962) 940 4863 487.11 0.02906 1.2 
Nezumia aequalis (Günther 1878) 782 4841 488.80 0.03744 1.5 
Protomyctophum choriodon Hulley 1981 150 4833 481.66 0.03205 1.3 

N is the number of individuals of each species measured.

Capture depths were calculated as the medians of all data for minimum capture depth available for each species at http://www.fishbase.org.

A linear regression was fitted to the λmax values at five different pressures (0.1, 9.0, 20.0, 31.0 and 45.8 or 54.0 MPa) for each animal examined. To avoid pseudo-replication, average data are presented here for each species.

The intercept on the λmax axis of the regression can be taken as an estimate of the λmax at atmospheric pressure.

Average gradient is the gradient of the regression line.

Average λmax shift, the calculated shift inλ max from atmospheric pressure to 40 MPa (approximately equivalent to 4000 m depth).

References for previous and more accurate measurements ofλ max made using hydroxylamine are: 1Douglas et al. (1995); 2Douglas and Partridge,1997; 3R.H.D., E.M.W. and J.C.P., unpublished data.

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