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Table 3.

Morphometrics and flight parameters at maximum locomotor capacity of wild-type Drosophila Canton S and the two flightin lines P{fln+}0.2 and P{fln+}2.2

(1) wt (N=10)(2) P[fln+]0.2 (N=11)(3) P[fln+]2.2 (N=15)Statistics
Body mass (mg) 1.10±0.15 0.88±0.09 1.01±0.11 (1,2), (1,3)NS, (2,3) 
Wing length (mm) 2.41±0.16 2.42±0.10 2.45±0.11 (1,2)NS, (1,3)NS, (2,3)NS 
Wing area (mm22.00±0.13 1.87±0.10 1.94±0.11 (1,2), (1,3)NS, (2,3)NS 
Stroke amplitude (deg.) 176±7.01 171±7.90 163±10.0 (1,2)NS, (1,3), (2,3)* 
Stroke frequency (Hz) 221±12.0 198±15.8 212±13.6 (1,2), (1,3)*, (2,3)* 
Maximum flight force (μN) 14.8±2.50 9.69±1.33 10.2±1.37 (1,2), (1,3), (2,3)NS 
Normalized force 1.36±0.24 1.15±0.23 1.03±0.11 (1,2)*, (1,3), (2,3)NS 
Pind (W kg-133.8±8.06 23.3±5.98 21.5±3.17 (1,2), (1,3), (2,3)NS 
Ppro (W kg-164.7±14.0 47.2±10.4 43.9±6.30 (1,2), (1,3), (2,3)NS 
Pmech (W kg-198.5±22.0 70.4±16.1 65.3±8.91 (1,2), (1,3), (2,3)NS 
PMR (W kg-11030±241 759±134 742±88.4 (1,2), (1,3), (2,3)NS 
Muscle efficiency (%) 9.76±1.24 9.43±1.28 8.89±1.04 (1,2)NS, (1,3)*, (2,3)NS 
Aerodynamic efficiency (%) 26.8±0.93 25.7±1.81 25.7±1.85 (1,2)NS, (1,3)*, (2,3)NS 
(1) wt (N=10)(2) P[fln+]0.2 (N=11)(3) P[fln+]2.2 (N=15)Statistics
Body mass (mg) 1.10±0.15 0.88±0.09 1.01±0.11 (1,2), (1,3)NS, (2,3) 
Wing length (mm) 2.41±0.16 2.42±0.10 2.45±0.11 (1,2)NS, (1,3)NS, (2,3)NS 
Wing area (mm22.00±0.13 1.87±0.10 1.94±0.11 (1,2), (1,3)NS, (2,3)NS 
Stroke amplitude (deg.) 176±7.01 171±7.90 163±10.0 (1,2)NS, (1,3), (2,3)* 
Stroke frequency (Hz) 221±12.0 198±15.8 212±13.6 (1,2), (1,3)*, (2,3)* 
Maximum flight force (μN) 14.8±2.50 9.69±1.33 10.2±1.37 (1,2), (1,3), (2,3)NS 
Normalized force 1.36±0.24 1.15±0.23 1.03±0.11 (1,2)*, (1,3), (2,3)NS 
Pind (W kg-133.8±8.06 23.3±5.98 21.5±3.17 (1,2), (1,3), (2,3)NS 
Ppro (W kg-164.7±14.0 47.2±10.4 43.9±6.30 (1,2), (1,3), (2,3)NS 
Pmech (W kg-198.5±22.0 70.4±16.1 65.3±8.91 (1,2), (1,3), (2,3)NS 
PMR (W kg-11030±241 759±134 742±88.4 (1,2), (1,3), (2,3)NS 
Muscle efficiency (%) 9.76±1.24 9.43±1.28 8.89±1.04 (1,2)NS, (1,3)*, (2,3)NS 
Aerodynamic efficiency (%) 26.8±0.93 25.7±1.81 25.7±1.85 (1,2)NS, (1,3)*, (2,3)NS 

The values were obtained while the fly was maximizing flight force production in a virtual reality flight arena in response to visual lift stimuli. The values represent the 1% maximum values measured in each flight sequence. Normalized flight force is the ratio between maximum flight force and the body mass of the animal. Muscle efficiency is the ratio between muscle mechanical power (Pmech) and metabolic power(PMR) that we calculated from the carbon dioxide release during flight. Muscle efficiency was estimated assuming 100% elastic energy storage in the thoracic flight motor. Aerodynamic efficiency is the aerodynamic loss during force production and equal to the ratio between the minimum power requirements for flight (Rankine–Froude power) and the sum of induced (Pind) and profile power requirements(Ppro). All power values are given in flight muscle mass specific units. We calculated the significances between the measures performing two-tailed t-test on the means. All values are given as means ± s.d.*P<0.05; P<0.01; P<0.001;NS, not significant. Body mass was estimated at the end of the experiment.

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