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Table 1.

Body composition and organ morphology in male field voles exposed to short and long day photoperiods

Photoperiod
ANOVA
TraitSDLD increaseLD plateauF2,80P
Body mass (g) 27.3a 30.9b 35.6c 23.0 <0.001 
Total wet mass(g)1 22.512a 25.687b 30.436c 23.6 <0.001 
Total dry mass(g)2 9.261a 10.672a 14.298b 21.0 <0.001 
Body water mass(g)3 13.250a 15.014b 16.138b 13.3 <0.001 
Body water content(%)4 59.4a 59.1a 53.3b 10.1 <0.001 
Dry fat mass(g)5 1.372a 1.743a 3.414b 18.7 <0.001 
Dry lean mass(g)6 7.890a 8.929a 10.884b 21.3 <0.001 
Body fat content(%)7 7.1a 8.0a 12.9b 13.9 <0.001 
Organ dry mass (g)      
   Brown adipose tissue 0.137a 0.162a 0.296b 15.7 <0.001 
   Subcutaneous fat8 0.947a 1.148a 2.152b 16.6 <0.001 
   Epididymal fat 0.315a 0.449a 0.907b 20.2 <0.001 
   Perirenal and retroperitoneal fat 0.092a 0.122a 0.327b 16.7 <0.001 
   Mesenteric fat 0.017 0.023 0.027 4.8 0.011 
   Thyroid 0.125a 0.176b 0.179b 9.8 <0.001 
   Heart 0.042 0.043 0.047 5.1 0.008 
   Lungs 0.084a 0.099a,b 0.117b 9.9 <0.001 
   Stomach 0.074 0.082 0.082 1.6 0.208 
   Caecum 0.128a 0.168b 0.146a,b 8.5 <0.001 
   Small intestine 0.175 0.207 0.190 3.8 0.026 
   Large intestine 0.065 0.067 0.065 0.1 0.909 
   Liver 0.380a 0.446b 0.502b 16.1 <0.001 
   Pancreas 0.034 0.037 0.042 3.4 0.039 
   Spleen 0.022 0.031 0.021 5.0 0.009 
   Kidney 0.080a 0.093b 0.106c 25.1 <0.001 
   Gonads9 0.144a 0.204b 0.374c 69.7 <0.001 
   Pelage 2.331a 2.571a 3.434b 13.3 <0.001 
   Carcass 4.068a 4.529a 5.283b 18.8 <0.001 
Photoperiod
ANOVA
TraitSDLD increaseLD plateauF2,80P
Body mass (g) 27.3a 30.9b 35.6c 23.0 <0.001 
Total wet mass(g)1 22.512a 25.687b 30.436c 23.6 <0.001 
Total dry mass(g)2 9.261a 10.672a 14.298b 21.0 <0.001 
Body water mass(g)3 13.250a 15.014b 16.138b 13.3 <0.001 
Body water content(%)4 59.4a 59.1a 53.3b 10.1 <0.001 
Dry fat mass(g)5 1.372a 1.743a 3.414b 18.7 <0.001 
Dry lean mass(g)6 7.890a 8.929a 10.884b 21.3 <0.001 
Body fat content(%)7 7.1a 8.0a 12.9b 13.9 <0.001 
Organ dry mass (g)      
   Brown adipose tissue 0.137a 0.162a 0.296b 15.7 <0.001 
   Subcutaneous fat8 0.947a 1.148a 2.152b 16.6 <0.001 
   Epididymal fat 0.315a 0.449a 0.907b 20.2 <0.001 
   Perirenal and retroperitoneal fat 0.092a 0.122a 0.327b 16.7 <0.001 
   Mesenteric fat 0.017 0.023 0.027 4.8 0.011 
   Thyroid 0.125a 0.176b 0.179b 9.8 <0.001 
   Heart 0.042 0.043 0.047 5.1 0.008 
   Lungs 0.084a 0.099a,b 0.117b 9.9 <0.001 
   Stomach 0.074 0.082 0.082 1.6 0.208 
   Caecum 0.128a 0.168b 0.146a,b 8.5 <0.001 
   Small intestine 0.175 0.207 0.190 3.8 0.026 
   Large intestine 0.065 0.067 0.065 0.1 0.909 
   Liver 0.380a 0.446b 0.502b 16.1 <0.001 
   Pancreas 0.034 0.037 0.042 3.4 0.039 
   Spleen 0.022 0.031 0.021 5.0 0.009 
   Kidney 0.080a 0.093b 0.106c 25.1 <0.001 
   Gonads9 0.144a 0.204b 0.374c 69.7 <0.001 
   Pelage 2.331a 2.571a 3.434b 13.3 <0.001 
   Carcass 4.068a 4.529a 5.283b 18.8 <0.001 

Male field voles were exposed to short day photoperiod (SD, 8 h:16 h L:D, N=38) and long day photoperiod (LD, 16 h: 8h L:D) for 1–28 days(the increase phase, N=20) or 29–70 days (the plateau phase, N=25). Values are absolute means.

For traits with significant P values (bold type), different letters indicate significant differences between the groups, as assessed by the Tukey pairwise comparisons.

The P values in bold are significant after Bonferroni corrections(0.05 divided by 27 comparisons).

1

The sum of wet masses of all dissected organs apart from brain (the discrepancy between total wet mass and body mass is due to mass of brain,blood and gut contents)

2

the sum of dry masses of all dissected organs apart from brain

3

the difference between total wet and dry masses

4

body water mass expressed as a percentage of total wet mass

5

the sum of dry masses of subcutaneous, epididymal, perirenal,retroperitoneal and mesenteric fat depots

6

the difference between total dry mass and dry fat mass

7

wet fat mass expressed as a percentage of total wet mass

8

anterior and posterior subcutaneous fat depots

9

testes and seminal vesicles

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