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Table 2.

Foetal programme re-expression during cardiac remodelling

Changes in gene expressionPhysiological consequences
Global increase in expression Hypertrophy; 
    Including collagen, contractile proteins,channels...(Schreiber et al.,1970) with activation of pre-existing or imported stem cells(Urbanek et al., 2003) ⇑ contractile units 
 Normalized wall stress 
Genes re-expressed  
    ββ-Myosin Heavy Chain(Lompré et al., 1979) ⇓ myosin ATPase and Vmax 
    Anaerobic switch (Taegtmayer and Overturf,1988) Better recovery period 
    Lactate Dehydrogenase M subunits(Revis and Cameron, 1978)  
    B subunit of Creatine Kinase(Younes et al., 1985)  
    Neuronal NO synthase and caveolin*(Damy et al., 2004) ⇓ in adrenergic response 
    Ventricular expression of ANF(Mercadier et al., 1989) ⇓ preload 
    Genes of the apoptotic pathway(Haunstetter and Izumo, 1988) `eat-me' signal 
    α3-subunit of Na+,K+-ATPase (Charlemagne et al.,1994) ⇓ sodium affinity 
    Embryonic MLC in ventricles(Sütsch et al., 1992) 
    IVS3A form of calcium channel(Gidh-Jain et al., 1995) 
Genes whose expression is blunted  
    Calcium ATPase of SR (SERCA 2)(Lompré et al., 1991) ⇑ relaxation time 
    Early transient K+ current, ItO (Swynghedauw et al., 2003) ⇑ action potential duration 
    αα-Myosin Heavy Chain(Lompré et al., 1979) ⇓ myosin ATPase and Vmax 
    β1-adrenergic, muscarinic receptors(Mansier et al., 1993) ⇓ heart rate variability 
    Myoglobin (O'Brien et al., 1992) Anaerobic switch 
Changes in gene expressionPhysiological consequences
Global increase in expression Hypertrophy; 
    Including collagen, contractile proteins,channels...(Schreiber et al.,1970) with activation of pre-existing or imported stem cells(Urbanek et al., 2003) ⇑ contractile units 
 Normalized wall stress 
Genes re-expressed  
    ββ-Myosin Heavy Chain(Lompré et al., 1979) ⇓ myosin ATPase and Vmax 
    Anaerobic switch (Taegtmayer and Overturf,1988) Better recovery period 
    Lactate Dehydrogenase M subunits(Revis and Cameron, 1978)  
    B subunit of Creatine Kinase(Younes et al., 1985)  
    Neuronal NO synthase and caveolin*(Damy et al., 2004) ⇓ in adrenergic response 
    Ventricular expression of ANF(Mercadier et al., 1989) ⇓ preload 
    Genes of the apoptotic pathway(Haunstetter and Izumo, 1988) `eat-me' signal 
    α3-subunit of Na+,K+-ATPase (Charlemagne et al.,1994) ⇓ sodium affinity 
    Embryonic MLC in ventricles(Sütsch et al., 1992) 
    IVS3A form of calcium channel(Gidh-Jain et al., 1995) 
Genes whose expression is blunted  
    Calcium ATPase of SR (SERCA 2)(Lompré et al., 1991) ⇑ relaxation time 
    Early transient K+ current, ItO (Swynghedauw et al., 2003) ⇑ action potential duration 
    αα-Myosin Heavy Chain(Lompré et al., 1979) ⇓ myosin ATPase and Vmax 
    β1-adrenergic, muscarinic receptors(Mansier et al., 1993) ⇓ heart rate variability 
    Myoglobin (O'Brien et al., 1992) Anaerobic switch 

Major changes are in bold.

*

Caveolin is augmented and likely to be responsible for the translocation of nNOS.

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