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Table 1.

Myocardial expression levels or activities of several transcription factors (TF) in pressure overloaded hearts

Transcription factorsEmbryonic and/or foetal changesMechanical effectsHormonal effects
GATA4 Disruption results in lethality ⇑ expression ⇑ under hormonal (α- and β-adrenergic) and vasopeptide (ET-1,angiotensin II) stimuli 
MEF-2 Controls cardiac looping and right ventricle formation ⇑ expression 
Csx/Nkx2-5 Disruption arrested looping morphogenesis ⇑ expression ⇑ under hormonal (α- and β-adrenergic) stimulus 
HAND-transcription factors eHAND plays a role in the differenciation of the left ventricle; dHAND is restricted to the right ventricle ⇓ expression ⇓ under hormonal (α-adrenergic) stimulus 
Transcription factorsEmbryonic and/or foetal changesMechanical effectsHormonal effects
GATA4 Disruption results in lethality ⇑ expression ⇑ under hormonal (α- and β-adrenergic) and vasopeptide (ET-1,angiotensin II) stimuli 
MEF-2 Controls cardiac looping and right ventricle formation ⇑ expression 
Csx/Nkx2-5 Disruption arrested looping morphogenesis ⇑ expression ⇑ under hormonal (α- and β-adrenergic) stimulus 
HAND-transcription factors eHAND plays a role in the differenciation of the left ventricle; dHAND is restricted to the right ventricle ⇓ expression ⇓ under hormonal (α-adrenergic) stimulus 

The TFs selected are those known to regulate cardiogenesis during embryonic development [taken in part from information published elsewhere(Akazawa and Komuro,2003)].

GATA4 regulates: α-MHC, Mlc1/3, cTNC, cTNI, ANP, CARP, cNCX1, cM2 R,A1 R, carnitine palmytoyl transferase expressions.

MEF2-binding sequences exist in CK, α-MHC, Mlc1/3, Mlc2v,sα-actin, SERCA, cTNT, cTNC, cTNI, desmin, dystrophin. MEF2 regulates calcium signalling.

Csx/Nkx2-5 regulates: Mlc2v, ANP, BNP, CARP, MEF2-C, eHAND/HAND1, N-myc,Iroquois homeobox gene 4, HOP, cα-actin, A1R, calreticulin, connexion 40, NCX1.

dHAND induces several expressions synergistically with the other transcription factors.

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