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Table 4.

Plasma glucose concentrations in Rana sylvatica subjected to experimental freezing

OriginSeasonGlucose (mmol l−1)Reference
Ontario, Canada Autumn 214±16 (6)a Storey and Storey (1984) 
  185±40 (6)a Storey and Storey (1984) 
  181±16 (5)a Storey and Storey (1985) 
  411±60 (3)b Storey and Storey (1986a) 
  257 (3)a Storey and Storey (1986b) 
  171±26 (3)a,c Storey (1987) 
  118±7 (9) Storey et al. (1992) 
  30±6 (4)d Churchill and Storey (1993) 
 Spring 57±13 (3)e Storey and Storey (1987) 
  10±4 (4)d Churchill and Storey (1993) 
  83±16 (10) Hemmings and Storey (1994) 
  69±9 (7) Storey and Storey (1996) 
N.W.T., Canada Spring 60±19 (4-6)f Costanzo et al. (1999) 
Ohio, USA Spring 15±0.4 (5) Layne and Lee (1987) 
  15±2 (10)g Costanzo et al. (1991a) 
  18±5 (5)h Costanzo et al. (1991b) 
  145±50 (3)d Costanzo et al. (1997) 
  24±16 (12) Layne et al. (1996) 
  50±11 (3)d Irwin et al. (2003) 
Pennsylvania, USA Autumn 93±8 (3) Layne (1995) 
 Spring 6±1 (4) Layne (1995) 
 Summer 3±1 (4) Layne (1995) 
New York, USA Winter 88±30 (9) Layne et al. (1996) 
OriginSeasonGlucose (mmol l−1)Reference
Ontario, Canada Autumn 214±16 (6)a Storey and Storey (1984) 
  185±40 (6)a Storey and Storey (1984) 
  181±16 (5)a Storey and Storey (1985) 
  411±60 (3)b Storey and Storey (1986a) 
  257 (3)a Storey and Storey (1986b) 
  171±26 (3)a,c Storey (1987) 
  118±7 (9) Storey et al. (1992) 
  30±6 (4)d Churchill and Storey (1993) 
 Spring 57±13 (3)e Storey and Storey (1987) 
  10±4 (4)d Churchill and Storey (1993) 
  83±16 (10) Hemmings and Storey (1994) 
  69±9 (7) Storey and Storey (1996) 
N.W.T., Canada Spring 60±19 (4-6)f Costanzo et al. (1999) 
Ohio, USA Spring 15±0.4 (5) Layne and Lee (1987) 
  15±2 (10)g Costanzo et al. (1991a) 
  18±5 (5)h Costanzo et al. (1991b) 
  145±50 (3)d Costanzo et al. (1997) 
  24±16 (12) Layne et al. (1996) 
  50±11 (3)d Irwin et al. (2003) 
Pennsylvania, USA Autumn 93±8 (3) Layne (1995) 
 Spring 6±1 (4) Layne (1995) 
 Summer 3±1 (4) Layne (1995) 
New York, USA Winter 88±30 (9) Layne et al. (1996) 

Data are reported for experiments in which frogs (adults, unless otherwise indicated) probably attained equilibrium ice content and were sampled after brief thawing. Means ± s.e.m.(N). ajuveniles; bfemales; csampled after two cycles of freezing; dblood was collected from still-frozen animals; ehighest of the means reported for several freezing regimens; fsampled 14 h after thawing at 5°C; gslowly cooled frogs; hadministered isotonic saline before freezing.

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