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Table 3.

Morphology and kinematics for non-acceleration-compensated experiments

   Loaded mass m (kg) 0.460±0.040 
   Wingspan b (m) 0.664±0.02 
   Frequency f (Hz) 7.98±0.46 
   Wing length R (m) 0.302±0.022 
   Single wing area (m20.0296±0.0054 
Kinematic means for 3 middle flaps  
   Peak upstroke angle φx-z,max (deg.) 86.2±7.5 
   Angular velocity φx-z (deg. s-1–2023±60 
   Downstroke time Tds (s) 0.0673±0.0023 
   Loaded mass m (kg) 0.460±0.040 
   Wingspan b (m) 0.664±0.02 
   Frequency f (Hz) 7.98±0.46 
   Wing length R (m) 0.302±0.022 
   Single wing area (m20.0296±0.0054 
Kinematic means for 3 middle flaps  
   Peak upstroke angle φx-z,max (deg.) 86.2±7.5 
   Angular velocity φx-z (deg. s-1–2023±60 
   Downstroke time Tds (s) 0.0673±0.0023 

   Values are means ± s.d.(N=3).

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