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Table 2.

Morphology, kinematics and results for acceleration-compensated experiments

Loaded mass m (kg) 0.483±0.027 
Wing span b (m) 0.660±0.01 
Frequency f (Hz) 8.02±0.69 
Flight velocity V (m s-14.46±0.27 
Tail angle of attack
\(\overline{{\alpha}_{\mathrm{tail}}}\)
(deg.) 
47.6±6.4 
Inclination of wing stroke plane β (deg.) 35.1±2.6 
Tail area Stail (m20.0204±0.0020 
Differential pressure: inner tail (Pa) 18.2±1.0 
Differential pressure: outer tail (Pa) 32.9±4.5 
Differential pressure: mean
\(\overline{\mathrm{d}P_{\mathrm{tail}}}\)
(Pa) 
25.6±8.5 
Weight support % 7.91±2.5 
Direct power (W) 1.70±0.2 
Body mass specific power (W kg-13.68±0.58 
Muscle mass specific power (W kg-119.3±3.0 
\(\overline{C_{\mathrm{R,tail}}}\)
 
2.14 
\(\overline{C_{\mathrm{L,tail}}}\)
 
1.44 
\(\overline{C_{\mathrm{D,tail}}}\)
 
1.59 
Loaded mass m (kg) 0.483±0.027 
Wing span b (m) 0.660±0.01 
Frequency f (Hz) 8.02±0.69 
Flight velocity V (m s-14.46±0.27 
Tail angle of attack
\(\overline{{\alpha}_{\mathrm{tail}}}\)
(deg.) 
47.6±6.4 
Inclination of wing stroke plane β (deg.) 35.1±2.6 
Tail area Stail (m20.0204±0.0020 
Differential pressure: inner tail (Pa) 18.2±1.0 
Differential pressure: outer tail (Pa) 32.9±4.5 
Differential pressure: mean
\(\overline{\mathrm{d}P_{\mathrm{tail}}}\)
(Pa) 
25.6±8.5 
Weight support % 7.91±2.5 
Direct power (W) 1.70±0.2 
Body mass specific power (W kg-13.68±0.58 
Muscle mass specific power (W kg-119.3±3.0 
\(\overline{C_{\mathrm{R,tail}}}\)
 
2.14 
\(\overline{C_{\mathrm{L,tail}}}\)
 
1.44 
\(\overline{C_{\mathrm{D,tail}}}\)
 
1.59 

Values are means ± s.d. (N=3).

The muscle mass used for the muscle mass specific power calculation is that of the pair of pectoralis muscles (18% body mass); while the power costs here are due to the tail, they are largely `paid' for by the wing-flapping musculature.

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