Table 2.

Loaded mass m (kg) | 0.483±0.027 |

Wing span b (m) | 0.660±0.01 |

Frequency f (Hz) | 8.02±0.69 |

Flight velocity V (m s^{-1}) | 4.46±0.27 |

Tail angle of attack \(\overline{{\alpha}_{\mathrm{tail}}}\) (deg.) | 47.6±6.4 |

Inclination of wing stroke plane β (deg.) | 35.1±2.6 |

Tail area S_{tail} (m^{2}) | 0.0204±0.0020 |

Differential pressure: inner tail (Pa) | 18.2±1.0 |

Differential pressure: outer tail (Pa) | 32.9±4.5 |

Differential pressure: mean \(\overline{\mathrm{d}P_{\mathrm{tail}}}\) (Pa) | 25.6±8.5 |

Weight support % | 7.91±2.5 |

Direct power (W) | 1.70±0.2 |

Body mass specific power (W kg^{-1}) | 3.68±0.58 |

Muscle mass specific power (W kg^{-1}) | 19.3±3.0 |

\(\overline{C_{\mathrm{R,tail}}}\) | 2.14 |

\(\overline{C_{\mathrm{L,tail}}}\) | 1.44 |

\(\overline{C_{\mathrm{D,tail}}}\) | 1.59 |

Loaded mass m (kg) | 0.483±0.027 |

Wing span b (m) | 0.660±0.01 |

Frequency f (Hz) | 8.02±0.69 |

Flight velocity V (m s^{-1}) | 4.46±0.27 |

Tail angle of attack \(\overline{{\alpha}_{\mathrm{tail}}}\) (deg.) | 47.6±6.4 |

Inclination of wing stroke plane β (deg.) | 35.1±2.6 |

Tail area S_{tail} (m^{2}) | 0.0204±0.0020 |

Differential pressure: inner tail (Pa) | 18.2±1.0 |

Differential pressure: outer tail (Pa) | 32.9±4.5 |

Differential pressure: mean \(\overline{\mathrm{d}P_{\mathrm{tail}}}\) (Pa) | 25.6±8.5 |

Weight support % | 7.91±2.5 |

Direct power (W) | 1.70±0.2 |

Body mass specific power (W kg^{-1}) | 3.68±0.58 |

Muscle mass specific power (W kg^{-1}) | 19.3±3.0 |

\(\overline{C_{\mathrm{R,tail}}}\) | 2.14 |

\(\overline{C_{\mathrm{L,tail}}}\) | 1.44 |

\(\overline{C_{\mathrm{D,tail}}}\) | 1.59 |

Values are means ± s.d. (*N*=3).

The muscle mass used for the muscle mass specific power calculation is that of the pair of pectoralis muscles (18% body mass); while the power costs here are due to the tail, they are largely `paid' for by the wing-flapping musculature.

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