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Table 1.

Development time, daily reproduction, fecundity and longevity of first instar nymph and newly moulted pre-reproductive adults

Development time to adult (days)Mean daily fecundity (nymphs per day)Mean total fecundity (nymphs per adult)Mean length of reproductive life (days)Longevity (days)
Control nymphs 18.8±0.2a 1.1±0.1a 37.3±2.6a 37.7±2.6a 58.5±2.6a 
RCH nymphs 18.7±0.5a 1.3±0.1a 46.1±2.6a 38.9±2.5a 59.5±2.4a 
Exposed nymphs 18.1±0.4a 1.6±0.1b 50.7±2.6b 35.7±2.5a 56.3±2.5a 
Control adults n/a 0.9±0.1y 16.8±1.5y 21.7±2.2y 42.7±2.2y 
RCH adults n/a 1.1±0.1y 33.1±1.7z 32.3±2.1z 53.3±2.1z 
Exposed adults n/a 1.1±0.1y 34.6±2.7z 33.2±2.7z 54.2±2.7z 
Development time to adult (days)Mean daily fecundity (nymphs per day)Mean total fecundity (nymphs per adult)Mean length of reproductive life (days)Longevity (days)
Control nymphs 18.8±0.2a 1.1±0.1a 37.3±2.6a 37.7±2.6a 58.5±2.6a 
RCH nymphs 18.7±0.5a 1.3±0.1a 46.1±2.6a 38.9±2.5a 59.5±2.4a 
Exposed nymphs 18.1±0.4a 1.6±0.1b 50.7±2.6b 35.7±2.5a 56.3±2.5a 
Control adults n/a 0.9±0.1y 16.8±1.5y 21.7±2.2y 42.7±2.2y 
RCH adults n/a 1.1±0.1y 33.1±1.7z 32.3±2.1z 53.3±2.1z 
Exposed adults n/a 1.1±0.1y 34.6±2.7z 33.2±2.7z 54.2±2.7z 

Control: aphids were maintained continuously at 10°C; RCH: aphids acclimated at 0°C for periods of time producing the highest survival at the discriminating temperature (2 h for nymphs and 30 min for adults) and then returned to 10°C. Exposed: aphids rapidly cold-hardened at 0°C for 2 h(nymphs) or 30 min (adults), prior to a 3 h exposure at the discriminating temperature (-11.5°C for nymphs and -12°C for adults).

n/a, not applicable.

Values are mean ± s.e.m. The letters in brackets indicate statistical significance; those with the same letter are not significantly different at P<0.05 (Tukey multiple comparison test). N=50.

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