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Table 4.

Results from Woolf's test for differences between (1) estimates ofO2 of completed dive cycles(sO2DC± s.e.e.) and (2) the net cost of diving(sO2net± s.e.e.) at three different periods of the annual cycle

SexDive duration range (s)SeasonsO2DC(ml O2 min-1 kg-1)χ2PsO2net (ml O2 min-1 kg-1)χ2P
Female 41–50 Summer 40.6±2.1λ,γ   15.8±2.0   
  Mid-winter 29.2±2.2λ   17.6±2.2   
  Late-winter 28.9±2.4γ 18.54 <0.0001 19.2±2.4 1.19 0.5518 
 91–100 Summer 39.0±2.1λ,γ   14.1±2.0   
  Mid-winter 27.7±2.2λ   16.1±2.2   
  Late-winter 29.6±2.5γ 15.55 0.0004 19.8±2.4 3.30 0.1920 
 141–150 Summer 35.7±2.1   10.9±2.0λ,γ   
  Mid-winter 29.6±2.2   18.0±2.2λ   
  Late-winter 30.9±2.5 4.54 0.103 21.1±2.4γ 11.60 0.0030 
Male 41–50 Summer 44.2±1.5λ,γ   16.9±2.0   
  Mid-winter 32.2±1.5λ   18.5±2.2   
  Late-winter 28.3±1.7γ 55.05 <0.0001 15.2±3.2 0.77 0.6807 
 91–100 Summer 42.4±1.5λ,γ   15.1±2.0   
  Mid-winter 29.4±1.5λ   15.7±2.2   
  Late-winter 27.0±1.7γ 57.31 <0.0001 13.9±3.2 0.21 0.9006 
 141–150 Summer 38.7±1.4λ,γ   11.5±2.0   
  Mid-winter 30.8±1.5λ   17.0±2.2   
  Late-winter 26.5±1.7γ 32.12 <0.0001 13.4±3.2 3.39 0.1838 
SexDive duration range (s)SeasonsO2DC(ml O2 min-1 kg-1)χ2PsO2net (ml O2 min-1 kg-1)χ2P
Female 41–50 Summer 40.6±2.1λ,γ   15.8±2.0   
  Mid-winter 29.2±2.2λ   17.6±2.2   
  Late-winter 28.9±2.4γ 18.54 <0.0001 19.2±2.4 1.19 0.5518 
 91–100 Summer 39.0±2.1λ,γ   14.1±2.0   
  Mid-winter 27.7±2.2λ   16.1±2.2   
  Late-winter 29.6±2.5γ 15.55 0.0004 19.8±2.4 3.30 0.1920 
 141–150 Summer 35.7±2.1   10.9±2.0λ,γ   
  Mid-winter 29.6±2.2   18.0±2.2λ   
  Late-winter 30.9±2.5 4.54 0.103 21.1±2.4γ 11.60 0.0030 
Male 41–50 Summer 44.2±1.5λ,γ   16.9±2.0   
  Mid-winter 32.2±1.5λ   18.5±2.2   
  Late-winter 28.3±1.7γ 55.05 <0.0001 15.2±3.2 0.77 0.6807 
 91–100 Summer 42.4±1.5λ,γ   15.1±2.0   
  Mid-winter 29.4±1.5λ   15.7±2.2   
  Late-winter 27.0±1.7γ 57.31 <0.0001 13.9±3.2 0.21 0.9006 
 141–150 Summer 38.7±1.4λ,γ   11.5±2.0   
  Mid-winter 30.8±1.5λ   17.0±2.2   
  Late-winter 26.5±1.7γ 32.12 <0.0001 13.4±3.2 3.39 0.1838 

Tests were repeated at three ranges of dive duration in male and female macaroni penguins. Significant differences between pairs determined by Z-tests with Bonferroni corrections within each dive range are represented by the following symbols λ,γ,

\({\varphi}\)
⁠.

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