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Table 2.

Mean daily abdominal temperature (Tab,D), minimum abdominal temperature (Tab,min) and maximum abdominal temperature (Tab,max) in macaroni penguins at three different seasons of their annual cycle

Female
Male
SeasonNMean Tab,DMean Tab,minMean Tab,maxNMean Tab,DMean Tab,minMean Tab,max
Summer 27 35.8±0.33 29.4±0.68 39.1±0.27λ,γ 25 36.3±0.29 29.9±0.64 39.6±0.11λ,γ 
Mid-Winter 19 35.0±0.47 31.0±0.84 37.7±0.37γ 18 35.6±0.36 30.6±0.74 38.4±0.13γ 
Late-Winter 12 34.7±0.53 30.2±0.90 37.6±0.58λ 10 36.2±0.49 32.0±1.09 38.7±0.21λ 
Female
Male
SeasonNMean Tab,DMean Tab,minMean Tab,maxNMean Tab,DMean Tab,minMean Tab,max
Summer 27 35.8±0.33 29.4±0.68 39.1±0.27λ,γ 25 36.3±0.29 29.9±0.64 39.6±0.11λ,γ 
Mid-Winter 19 35.0±0.47 31.0±0.84 37.7±0.37γ 18 35.6±0.36 30.6±0.74 38.4±0.13γ 
Late-Winter 12 34.7±0.53 30.2±0.90 37.6±0.58λ 10 36.2±0.49 32.0±1.09 38.7±0.21λ 

GLM was used to investigate the change in temperature. Tab,D and Tab,max were significantly greater in male penguins (P=0.027 and 0.005, respectively). There was significant effect of season on Tab,max only(P<0.0001). Differences between pairs of temperatures as indicated by post-hoc Tukey tests are represented by the following symbolsλ,γ.

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