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Table 1.

Kinematic parameters for zebrafish larvae during cyclic swimming and slow starts

Age (days)L (mm)1 (s-1)smf(s-1)AU/VJSαa (deg.)λReNtb
Cyclic swimming             
3.5 9.3±3.0 (25) ±1.8 (5) 40 0.22 0.28 0.26 0.23 49 0.96 100 
3.5 37.5±6.1 (14) ±0.6 (2) 71 0.20 0.48 0.65 0.53 34 1.05 450 
3.9 8.1±2.7 (32) ±1.0 (5) 31 0.26 0.27 0.26 0.27 49 1.01 100 
3.9 55.3±7.9 (11) ±0.9 (3) 100 0.23 0.55 0.69 0.55 23 1.09 850 
4.2 43.8±3.2 (15) ±0.2 (2) 68 0.24 0.56 0.68 0.64 27 1.03 750 
4.3 16.0±1.4 (24) ±2.7 (2) 42 0.19 0.38 0.51 0.38 46 0.99 300 
4.3 48.4±8.0 (12) ±0.9 (5) 80 0.25 0.51 0.61 0.60 30 1.02 900 
4.4 17.8±0.9 (18) ±0.0 (2) 56 0.11 0.36 0.70 0.32 36 0.94 350 
4.4 44.9±5.8 (14) ±0.0 (2) 73 0.21 0.53 0.72 0.62 26 1.15 900 
Slow start (values for second tail beat)             
3.5 3.9±0.7 (16) ±2.7 (13) 61 0.14 0.03 0.07 0.04 65 0.70 50 13 
4.2 4.1±1.0 (36) ±1.1 (7) 28 0.12 0.04 0.21 0.10 70 0.76 70 
4.4 4.9±0.4 (30) ±1.5 (6) 33 0.11 0.06 0.24 0.11 68 0.86 100 
14 6.4 7.0±0.7 (33) ±1.1 (5) 30 0.17 0.06 0.23 0.16 52 0.81 300 
Age (days)L (mm)1 (s-1)smf(s-1)AU/VJSαa (deg.)λReNtb
Cyclic swimming             
3.5 9.3±3.0 (25) ±1.8 (5) 40 0.22 0.28 0.26 0.23 49 0.96 100 
3.5 37.5±6.1 (14) ±0.6 (2) 71 0.20 0.48 0.65 0.53 34 1.05 450 
3.9 8.1±2.7 (32) ±1.0 (5) 31 0.26 0.27 0.26 0.27 49 1.01 100 
3.9 55.3±7.9 (11) ±0.9 (3) 100 0.23 0.55 0.69 0.55 23 1.09 850 
4.2 43.8±3.2 (15) ±0.2 (2) 68 0.24 0.56 0.68 0.64 27 1.03 750 
4.3 16.0±1.4 (24) ±2.7 (2) 42 0.19 0.38 0.51 0.38 46 0.99 300 
4.3 48.4±8.0 (12) ±0.9 (5) 80 0.25 0.51 0.61 0.60 30 1.02 900 
4.4 17.8±0.9 (18) ±0.0 (2) 56 0.11 0.36 0.70 0.32 36 0.94 350 
4.4 44.9±5.8 (14) ±0.0 (2) 73 0.21 0.53 0.72 0.62 26 1.15 900 
Slow start (values for second tail beat)             
3.5 3.9±0.7 (16) ±2.7 (13) 61 0.14 0.03 0.07 0.04 65 0.70 50 13 
4.2 4.1±1.0 (36) ±1.1 (7) 28 0.12 0.04 0.21 0.10 70 0.76 70 
4.4 4.9±0.4 (30) ±1.5 (6) 33 0.11 0.06 0.24 0.11 68 0.86 100 
14 6.4 7.0±0.7 (33) ±1.1 (5) 30 0.17 0.06 0.23 0.16 52 0.81 300 

Each row contains the data for one sequence. For cyclic swimming, the slowest and the fastest sequence is given if it contains more than one tail beat.

L, body length; 1, specific mean swimming speed ± s.d. (N, number of frames); sm,s.d. of mean swimming speed (N, number of tail beats); f, tail beat frequency; A, tail beat amplitude; U/V, slip; J, advance ratio; S, stride length;α a, angle of attack of the tail; λ, body wave length; Re, Reynolds number; Ntb, number of tail beats analysed.

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