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Table 1.

Inhibitory effect of atropine and PACAP, and excitatory effect of acetylcholine and NKA, on anterior anterograde contraction waves in developing zebrafish gut

TreatmentGut contraction frequency (cycles min-1)
Acetylcholine 3 d.p.f. (0%), N=9 4 d.p.f. (38%), N=13  
   Control – 
   NaCl 0.22±0.22 – 
   Acetylcholine 1.00±0.19 – 
Atropine and NKA 4 d.p.f. (77%), N=9 5 d.p.f. (88%), N=9 6–8 d.p.f. (100%), N=8 
   Control 1.02±0.24 0.90±0.22 0.97±0.19 
   NaCl (first) 1.13±0.27 1.06±0.24 1.22±0.22 
   Atropine 0.67±0.31 0.40±0.20 0.54±0.21 
   NaCl (second) 0.42±0.25 0.14±0.06 0.35±0.16 
   NKA 0.53±0.27 0.76±0.24 0.19±0.88 
PACAP 4 d.p.f. (60%), N=5 5 d.p.f. (100%), N=6 5–6 d.p.f. (100%), N=11 
   Control 0.89±0.11 0.89±0.19 0.91±0.23 
   NaCl – – 0.83±0.24 
   PACAP 0.11±0.06 0.06±0.06 – 
TreatmentGut contraction frequency (cycles min-1)
Acetylcholine 3 d.p.f. (0%), N=9 4 d.p.f. (38%), N=13  
   Control – 
   NaCl 0.22±0.22 – 
   Acetylcholine 1.00±0.19 – 
Atropine and NKA 4 d.p.f. (77%), N=9 5 d.p.f. (88%), N=9 6–8 d.p.f. (100%), N=8 
   Control 1.02±0.24 0.90±0.22 0.97±0.19 
   NaCl (first) 1.13±0.27 1.06±0.24 1.22±0.22 
   Atropine 0.67±0.31 0.40±0.20 0.54±0.21 
   NaCl (second) 0.42±0.25 0.14±0.06 0.35±0.16 
   NKA 0.53±0.27 0.76±0.24 0.19±0.88 
PACAP 4 d.p.f. (60%), N=5 5 d.p.f. (100%), N=6 5–6 d.p.f. (100%), N=11 
   Control 0.89±0.11 0.89±0.19 0.91±0.23 
   NaCl – – 0.83±0.24 
   PACAP 0.11±0.06 0.06±0.06 – 

Values are means ± s.e.m.

Percentage values indicate the proportion of animals affected by the treatment. Mean values different from zero are calculated from responding animals only. N, total number of animals used.

d.p.f., days post fertilization; PACAP, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide; NKA, neurokinin A.

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