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Table 1.

Difference between mean measured force and mean calculated force

Downstroke
Upstroke
Mean (N)s.d. (N)Mean (N)s.d. (N)
Mean wingbeat frequency 129 Hz     
Mode 2* 1.7×10-4 4.5×10-5 2.1×10-4 5.1×10-5 
Mode 1 1.1×10-4 6.9×10-5 1.1×10-4 8.0×10-5 
Total 1.4×10-4 6.3×10-5 1.8×10-4 8.3×10-5 
Mean wingbeat frequency 155 Hz     
Mode 2* 1.4×10-4 7.0×10-5 2.2×10-4 10.8×10-5 
Mode 1 0.7×10-4 10.1×10-5 1.4×10-4 10.6×10-5 
Total 1.3×10-4 8.0×10-5 1.9×10-4 9.8×10-5 
Downstroke
Upstroke
Mean (N)s.d. (N)Mean (N)s.d. (N)
Mean wingbeat frequency 129 Hz     
Mode 2* 1.7×10-4 4.5×10-5 2.1×10-4 5.1×10-5 
Mode 1 1.1×10-4 6.9×10-5 1.1×10-4 8.0×10-5 
Total 1.4×10-4 6.3×10-5 1.8×10-4 8.3×10-5 
Mean wingbeat frequency 155 Hz     
Mode 2* 1.4×10-4 7.0×10-5 2.2×10-4 10.8×10-5 
Mode 1 0.7×10-4 10.1×10-5 1.4×10-4 10.6×10-5 
Total 1.3×10-4 8.0×10-5 1.9×10-4 9.8×10-5 
*

Data shown in Fig. 21 

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