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Table 2.

Results from a two-way ANOVA of the effects of individual and treatment on swimming kinematic variables

VariableIndividual (6,80)Treatment (3,18)Individual × treatment (18,80)Summary of pairwise Bonferroni—Dunn post-hoc probability matrix
Tail-beat frequency (Hz) 6.7** 317.9** 4.7** FS>smD4.5>smD2.5=laD4.5 
Body wavelength (L0.8 77.5** 1.3 laD4.5>smD2.5=smD4.5>FS 
Snout amplitude (L1.6 198.4** 1.4 laD4.5>smD2.5=smD4.5=FS 
COM amplitude (L1.3 178.0** 1.8 laD4.5>smD2.5=smD4.5=FS 
50% L amplitude (L2.2 192.7** 1.9 laD4.5>smD2.5=smD4.5>FS 
Tail-beat amplitude (L3.6* 261.9** 1.3 laD4.5>smD4.5>smD2.5>FS 
Max. body curvature (l/L2.4 5.8* 0.8 laD4.5>smD2.5, smD2.5=smD4.5=FS, smD4.5=laD4.5 
Location of max. curvature (L5.2** 5.3* 1.0 FS>smD2.5=smD4.5>laD4.5 
Distance downstream from cylinder (L7.9** 1.3 5.6** — 
 (6,60) (2,12) (12,60)  
Maximum head angle (degrees) 5.1** 5.2* 1.8 smD2.5=smD4.5=laD4.5>FS, smD4.5=FS 
VariableIndividual (6,80)Treatment (3,18)Individual × treatment (18,80)Summary of pairwise Bonferroni—Dunn post-hoc probability matrix
Tail-beat frequency (Hz) 6.7** 317.9** 4.7** FS>smD4.5>smD2.5=laD4.5 
Body wavelength (L0.8 77.5** 1.3 laD4.5>smD2.5=smD4.5>FS 
Snout amplitude (L1.6 198.4** 1.4 laD4.5>smD2.5=smD4.5=FS 
COM amplitude (L1.3 178.0** 1.8 laD4.5>smD2.5=smD4.5=FS 
50% L amplitude (L2.2 192.7** 1.9 laD4.5>smD2.5=smD4.5>FS 
Tail-beat amplitude (L3.6* 261.9** 1.3 laD4.5>smD4.5>smD2.5>FS 
Max. body curvature (l/L2.4 5.8* 0.8 laD4.5>smD2.5, smD2.5=smD4.5=FS, smD4.5=laD4.5 
Location of max. curvature (L5.2** 5.3* 1.0 FS>smD2.5=smD4.5>laD4.5 
Distance downstream from cylinder (L7.9** 1.3 5.6** — 
 (6,60) (2,12) (12,60)  
Maximum head angle (degrees) 5.1** 5.2* 1.8 smD2.5=smD4.5=laD4.5>FS, smD4.5=FS 

Data are from 7 individuals (3-4 cycles per individual for each treatment). To increase statistical power in the analyses of downstream cylinder treatments, bow wake data were excluded.

Table entries are F-values, with degrees of freedom in parentheses in the column heading.

Treatments: smD2.5, 2.5 cm diameter cylinder at 2.5 Ls-1; smD4.5, 2.5 cm diameter cylinder at 4.5 Ls-1; laD4.5, 5 cm diameter cylinder at 4.5 Ls-1; FS, free stream at 4.5 L s-1.

*

Significant at P≤0.05 or **P≤ 0.005, using the sequential Bonferroni method (Rice,1989).

Degrees of freedom for downstream cylinder distances.

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