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Table 1.

Species included in this work, their group affiliation, body mass,lengths of the tarsometatarsus (tmt) and moment arm of the flexor of the tarsometatarsus (d), and the ratio d/tmt

GroupSpeciesEnglish nameNBody mass*, M (kg)Tarsometatarsus length, tmt (m)S.E.M.×10-2Length of moment arm, d (m)S.E.M.×10-2d/tmt
WH Carduelis chloris European greenfinch 0.030 0.0172 0.040 0.0022 0.003 0.126 
WH Columba livia domestica Common pigeon 16 0.315 0.0315 0.038 0.0047 0.013 0.148 
WH Columba palumbus Common wood pigeon 0.514 0.0325 0.030 0.0067 0.013 0.206 
WH Corvus corone cornix Black hooded crow 0.526 0.0581 0.127 0.0090 0.025 0.155 
WH Corvus monedula Eurasian jackdaw 0.232 0.0435 0.079 0.0063 0.011 0.145 
WH Fringilla coelebs Chaffinch 10 0.022 0.0179 0.021 0.0021 0.013 0.118 
WH Parus cristatus** Crested tit 0.012 0.0179 0.014 0.0027 0.011 0.153 
WH Passer domesticus House sparrow 0.030 0.0189 0.038 0.0028 0.006 0.146 
WH Passer montanus Eurasian tree sparrow 0.022 0.0168 0.019 0.0023 0.003 0.139 
WH Pica pica Black-billed magpie 11 0.223 0.0473 0.094 0.0059 0.022 0.125 
WH Pyrrhula pyrrhula Eurasian bullfinch 0.033 0.0186 0.056 0.0023 0.030 0.125 
WH Sturnus vulgaris Common starling 13 0.093 0.0296 0.023 0.0038 0.004 0.130 
WH Sylvia atricapilla Blackcap 0.018 0.0197 0.053 0.0028 0.057 0.144 
WH Sylvia borin Garden warbler 0.019 0.0197 0.017 0.0025 0.019 0.127 
WH Turdus iliacus Redwing 0.068 0.0288 0.031 0.0033 0.004 0.116 
WH Turdus merula Common blackbird 25 0.105 0.0338 0.016 0.0041 0.007 0.122 
WH Turdus philomelos Song thrush 0.075 0.0321 0.025 0.0032 0.019 0.101 
WH Turdus pilaris Fieldfare 0.105 0.0329 0.061 0.0037 0.028 0.113 
BOP Accipiter gentilis Northern goshawk 0.865 0.0751 0.079 0.0163 0.024 0.217 
BOP Accipiter nisus Eurasian sparrowhawk 0.204 0.0590 0.410 0.0054 0.115 0.091 
BOP Aquila chrysaetos Golden eagle 4.113 0.1048 0.219 0.0269 0.148 0.257 
BOP Asio otus Long-eared owl 0.284 0.0385 0.076 0.0105 0.038 0.272 
BOP Buteo buteo Common buzzard 0.809 0.0769 0.092 0.0155 0.052 0.202 
BOP Circus cyaneus Northern harrier 0.467 0.0739 0.276 0.0113 0.056 0.153 
BOP Falco peregrinus Peregrine falcon 0.995 0.0502 0.294 0.0118 0.108 0.236 
BOP Glaucidium passerinum Eurasian pygme owl 0.067 0.0166 0.026 0.0064 0.025 0.384 
BOP Milvus milvus Red kite 1.149 0.0558 0.077 0.0124 0.024 0.222 
BOP Pandion haliaetus Osprey 1.508 0.0528 0.074 0.0173 0.032 0.328 
BOP Strix aluco Tawny owl 0.460 0.0497 0.091 0.0124 0.042 0.250 
Certhia familiaris** Eurasian treecreeper 0.009 0.0153 0.010 0.0026 0.010 0.172 
Dendrocopos major Great spotted woodpecker 0.089 0.0250 0.036 0.0066 0.022 0.262 
Picus viridis Eurasian green woodpecker 0.188 0.0316 0.033 0.0074 0.033 0.235 
Sitta europaea Wood nuthatch 0.023 0.0198 0.012 0.0034 0.013 0.171 
Amazona ochrocephala Yellow-crowned parrot 0.438 0.0223 0.049 0.0074 0.026 0.333 
Melopsittacus undulatus Budgerigar 0.046 0.0138 0.034 0.0029 0.003 0.212 
Nymphicus hollandicus Cockatiel 0.089 0.0145 0.038 0.0023 0.016 0.158 
Parus ater** Coal tit 0.009 0.0160 0.017 0.0026 0.004 0.165 
Parus caeruleus European blue tit 0.012 0.0166 0.023 0.0020 0.010 0.121 
Parus major Great tit 0.019 0.0189 0.047 0.0023 0.004 0.120 
Parus montanus** Willow tit 0.011 0.0166 0.011 0.0029 0.006 0.172 
Psittacus erithacus Grey parrot 0.446 0.0228 0.068 0.0068 0.022 0.296 
Regulus regulus** Goldcrest 0.006 0.0171 0.011 0.0018 0.008 0.107 
FS Gavia adamsii Yellow-billed loon 5.200 0.0964  0.0148  0.154 
FS Gavia arctica Arctic Loon 1.987 0.0783 0.042 0.0112 0.0045 0.143 
FS Gavia stellata Red-throated loon 1.144 0.0724 0.083 0.0103 0.0168 0.143 
FS Mergus merganser Common merganser 1.585 0.0496 0.278 0.0095 0.0094 0.192 
FS Mergus serrator Red-breasted merganser 1.197 0.0463 0.051 0.0087 0.0228 0.188 
FS Phalacrocorax carbo Great cormorant 3.490 0.0671 0.143 0.0140 0.0402 0.209 
FS Podiceps cristatus Great crested grebe 1.325 0.0647 0.096 0.0097 0.0355 0.150 
FS Podiceps griseigena Red-necked grebe 0.830 0.0540 0.188 0.0080 0.0025 0.149 
SS Aix sponsa Wood duck 0.681 0.0340 0.040 0.0070 0.013 0.206 
SS Alca torda Razorbill 0.717 0.0325 0.083 0.0064 0.015 0.196 
SS Anas platyrhynchos Mallard 1.101 0.0456 0.065 0.0091 0.039 0.201 
SS Aythya fuligula Tufted duck 0.992 0.0346 0.026 0.0068 0.049 0.197 
SS Bucephala clangula Common goldeneye 1.136 0.0391 0.029 0.0086 0.020 0.220 
SS Cepphys grylle Black guillemot 0.376 0.0323 0.037 0.0058 0.022 0.178 
SS Clangula hyemalis Long-tailed duck 0.705 0.0335 0.030 0.0067 0.013 0.201 
SS Larus argentatus Herring gull 1.177 0.0679 0.098 0.0086 0.019 0.127 
SS Larus canus Common gull 0.360 0.0517 0.097 0.0059 0.019 0.114 
SS Melanitta fusca White-winged scoter 1.606 0.0496 0.088 0.0092 0.014 0.185 
SS Netta rufina Red-crested pochard 1.220 0.0423 0.084 0.0078 0.046 0.184 
SS Plotus alle Little auk 0.108 0.0207 0.021 0.0040 0.015 0.196 
SS Rissa tridactyla Black-legged kittiwake 0.393 0.0342 0.042 0.0049 0.010 0.142 
SS Somateria mollissima Common eider 2.315 0.0538 0.069 0.0111 0.021 0.206 
SS Sterna hirundo Common tern 0.125 0.0200 0.054 0.0029 0.015 0.146 
SS Tadorna tadorna Common shelduck 1.167 0.0597 0.177 0.0107 0.019 0.178 
SS Uria aalge Common murre 0.670 0.0380 0.027 0.0073 0.009 0.191 
GroupSpeciesEnglish nameNBody mass*, M (kg)Tarsometatarsus length, tmt (m)S.E.M.×10-2Length of moment arm, d (m)S.E.M.×10-2d/tmt
WH Carduelis chloris European greenfinch 0.030 0.0172 0.040 0.0022 0.003 0.126 
WH Columba livia domestica Common pigeon 16 0.315 0.0315 0.038 0.0047 0.013 0.148 
WH Columba palumbus Common wood pigeon 0.514 0.0325 0.030 0.0067 0.013 0.206 
WH Corvus corone cornix Black hooded crow 0.526 0.0581 0.127 0.0090 0.025 0.155 
WH Corvus monedula Eurasian jackdaw 0.232 0.0435 0.079 0.0063 0.011 0.145 
WH Fringilla coelebs Chaffinch 10 0.022 0.0179 0.021 0.0021 0.013 0.118 
WH Parus cristatus** Crested tit 0.012 0.0179 0.014 0.0027 0.011 0.153 
WH Passer domesticus House sparrow 0.030 0.0189 0.038 0.0028 0.006 0.146 
WH Passer montanus Eurasian tree sparrow 0.022 0.0168 0.019 0.0023 0.003 0.139 
WH Pica pica Black-billed magpie 11 0.223 0.0473 0.094 0.0059 0.022 0.125 
WH Pyrrhula pyrrhula Eurasian bullfinch 0.033 0.0186 0.056 0.0023 0.030 0.125 
WH Sturnus vulgaris Common starling 13 0.093 0.0296 0.023 0.0038 0.004 0.130 
WH Sylvia atricapilla Blackcap 0.018 0.0197 0.053 0.0028 0.057 0.144 
WH Sylvia borin Garden warbler 0.019 0.0197 0.017 0.0025 0.019 0.127 
WH Turdus iliacus Redwing 0.068 0.0288 0.031 0.0033 0.004 0.116 
WH Turdus merula Common blackbird 25 0.105 0.0338 0.016 0.0041 0.007 0.122 
WH Turdus philomelos Song thrush 0.075 0.0321 0.025 0.0032 0.019 0.101 
WH Turdus pilaris Fieldfare 0.105 0.0329 0.061 0.0037 0.028 0.113 
BOP Accipiter gentilis Northern goshawk 0.865 0.0751 0.079 0.0163 0.024 0.217 
BOP Accipiter nisus Eurasian sparrowhawk 0.204 0.0590 0.410 0.0054 0.115 0.091 
BOP Aquila chrysaetos Golden eagle 4.113 0.1048 0.219 0.0269 0.148 0.257 
BOP Asio otus Long-eared owl 0.284 0.0385 0.076 0.0105 0.038 0.272 
BOP Buteo buteo Common buzzard 0.809 0.0769 0.092 0.0155 0.052 0.202 
BOP Circus cyaneus Northern harrier 0.467 0.0739 0.276 0.0113 0.056 0.153 
BOP Falco peregrinus Peregrine falcon 0.995 0.0502 0.294 0.0118 0.108 0.236 
BOP Glaucidium passerinum Eurasian pygme owl 0.067 0.0166 0.026 0.0064 0.025 0.384 
BOP Milvus milvus Red kite 1.149 0.0558 0.077 0.0124 0.024 0.222 
BOP Pandion haliaetus Osprey 1.508 0.0528 0.074 0.0173 0.032 0.328 
BOP Strix aluco Tawny owl 0.460 0.0497 0.091 0.0124 0.042 0.250 
Certhia familiaris** Eurasian treecreeper 0.009 0.0153 0.010 0.0026 0.010 0.172 
Dendrocopos major Great spotted woodpecker 0.089 0.0250 0.036 0.0066 0.022 0.262 
Picus viridis Eurasian green woodpecker 0.188 0.0316 0.033 0.0074 0.033 0.235 
Sitta europaea Wood nuthatch 0.023 0.0198 0.012 0.0034 0.013 0.171 
Amazona ochrocephala Yellow-crowned parrot 0.438 0.0223 0.049 0.0074 0.026 0.333 
Melopsittacus undulatus Budgerigar 0.046 0.0138 0.034 0.0029 0.003 0.212 
Nymphicus hollandicus Cockatiel 0.089 0.0145 0.038 0.0023 0.016 0.158 
Parus ater** Coal tit 0.009 0.0160 0.017 0.0026 0.004 0.165 
Parus caeruleus European blue tit 0.012 0.0166 0.023 0.0020 0.010 0.121 
Parus major Great tit 0.019 0.0189 0.047 0.0023 0.004 0.120 
Parus montanus** Willow tit 0.011 0.0166 0.011 0.0029 0.006 0.172 
Psittacus erithacus Grey parrot 0.446 0.0228 0.068 0.0068 0.022 0.296 
Regulus regulus** Goldcrest 0.006 0.0171 0.011 0.0018 0.008 0.107 
FS Gavia adamsii Yellow-billed loon 5.200 0.0964  0.0148  0.154 
FS Gavia arctica Arctic Loon 1.987 0.0783 0.042 0.0112 0.0045 0.143 
FS Gavia stellata Red-throated loon 1.144 0.0724 0.083 0.0103 0.0168 0.143 
FS Mergus merganser Common merganser 1.585 0.0496 0.278 0.0095 0.0094 0.192 
FS Mergus serrator Red-breasted merganser 1.197 0.0463 0.051 0.0087 0.0228 0.188 
FS Phalacrocorax carbo Great cormorant 3.490 0.0671 0.143 0.0140 0.0402 0.209 
FS Podiceps cristatus Great crested grebe 1.325 0.0647 0.096 0.0097 0.0355 0.150 
FS Podiceps griseigena Red-necked grebe 0.830 0.0540 0.188 0.0080 0.0025 0.149 
SS Aix sponsa Wood duck 0.681 0.0340 0.040 0.0070 0.013 0.206 
SS Alca torda Razorbill 0.717 0.0325 0.083 0.0064 0.015 0.196 
SS Anas platyrhynchos Mallard 1.101 0.0456 0.065 0.0091 0.039 0.201 
SS Aythya fuligula Tufted duck 0.992 0.0346 0.026 0.0068 0.049 0.197 
SS Bucephala clangula Common goldeneye 1.136 0.0391 0.029 0.0086 0.020 0.220 
SS Cepphys grylle Black guillemot 0.376 0.0323 0.037 0.0058 0.022 0.178 
SS Clangula hyemalis Long-tailed duck 0.705 0.0335 0.030 0.0067 0.013 0.201 
SS Larus argentatus Herring gull 1.177 0.0679 0.098 0.0086 0.019 0.127 
SS Larus canus Common gull 0.360 0.0517 0.097 0.0059 0.019 0.114 
SS Melanitta fusca White-winged scoter 1.606 0.0496 0.088 0.0092 0.014 0.185 
SS Netta rufina Red-crested pochard 1.220 0.0423 0.084 0.0078 0.046 0.184 
SS Plotus alle Little auk 0.108 0.0207 0.021 0.0040 0.015 0.196 
SS Rissa tridactyla Black-legged kittiwake 0.393 0.0342 0.042 0.0049 0.010 0.142 
SS Somateria mollissima Common eider 2.315 0.0538 0.069 0.0111 0.021 0.206 
SS Sterna hirundo Common tern 0.125 0.0200 0.054 0.0029 0.015 0.146 
SS Tadorna tadorna Common shelduck 1.167 0.0597 0.177 0.0107 0.019 0.178 
SS Uria aalge Common murre 0.670 0.0380 0.027 0.0073 0.009 0.191 

BOP, birds of prey; C, climbers; FS, fast swimmers; H, hangers; SS, slow swimmers; WH, walkers and hoppers.

S.E.M., standard error of mean.

*

Taken from Cramp and Simmons(1980) and Cramp(1985).

**

Taken from Norberg(1979).

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