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Table 2.

Summary of mechanical properties in cortical locations of equine third metacarpals

Test modeCortical regionNElastic modulus (GPa)Yield stress (MPa)Yield strain (%)Ultimate stress (MPa)Ultimate strain (%)Physiological stress (MPa)Yield safety factorUltimate safety factor
Tension Cranio-lateral (T) 12 17.81±1.86 148.59±15.45 1.00±0.07 161.20±17.73 3.38±0.79 3.95±0.32 37.72±3.49 40.93±4.18 
 Caudo-medial (C) 17 17.26±2.21 148.07±2.21 1.02±0.15 163.85±17.02 3.73±0.84 37.13±4.84 4.04±0.62 4.46±0.59 
Compression Cranio-lateral (T) 20 11.88±3.04 172.04±20.79 1.76±0.50 182.87±16.54 2.89±2.50 2.65±0.67 68.89±20.09 73.86±23.35 
 Caudo-medial (C) 20 12.98±2.56 157.71±23.25 1.45±0.15 170.28±15.13 2.11±0.49 28.00±5.39 5.71±0.70 6.23±0.89 
 Lateral (C)(C,T?)* 10 13.92±4.56 158.57±40.01 1.39±0.20 174.38±17.89 1.93±0.86 11.36±3.72 14.39±2.61 17.39±8.22 
 Cranio-medial (C) 10 14.30±2.76 185.68±23.85 1.53±0.14 191.54±21.72 2.00±0.57 3.46±0.67 54.45±5.98 56.45±7.91 
Test modeCortical regionNElastic modulus (GPa)Yield stress (MPa)Yield strain (%)Ultimate stress (MPa)Ultimate strain (%)Physiological stress (MPa)Yield safety factorUltimate safety factor
Tension Cranio-lateral (T) 12 17.81±1.86 148.59±15.45 1.00±0.07 161.20±17.73 3.38±0.79 3.95±0.32 37.72±3.49 40.93±4.18 
 Caudo-medial (C) 17 17.26±2.21 148.07±2.21 1.02±0.15 163.85±17.02 3.73±0.84 37.13±4.84 4.04±0.62 4.46±0.59 
Compression Cranio-lateral (T) 20 11.88±3.04 172.04±20.79 1.76±0.50 182.87±16.54 2.89±2.50 2.65±0.67 68.89±20.09 73.86±23.35 
 Caudo-medial (C) 20 12.98±2.56 157.71±23.25 1.45±0.15 170.28±15.13 2.11±0.49 28.00±5.39 5.71±0.70 6.23±0.89 
 Lateral (C)(C,T?)* 10 13.92±4.56 158.57±40.01 1.39±0.20 174.38±17.89 1.93±0.86 11.36±3.72 14.39±2.61 17.39±8.22 
 Cranio-medial (C) 10 14.30±2.76 185.68±23.85 1.53±0.14 191.54±21.72 2.00±0.57 3.46±0.67 54.45±5.98 56.45±7.91 

Values are means ± S.D.; N=number of specimens.

T, specimen obtained from a bone region subject to habitually prevalent tensile strains.

C, specimen obtained from a bone region subject to habitually prevalent compressive strains.

*

This region may receive predominant tension at higher gait speeds.

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