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Table 1.

Responses to rapid impulsive perturbations during running

All trials (N=11)Perturbation occurs during stance phase of tripod LF,RM,LR (N=6)Perturbation occurs during stance phase of tripod RF,LM,RR (N=5)
Phase of perturbation in stride (%) 37±28 35±26 40±32 
Maximum lateral velocity (cm s-121.0±6.9 20.5±7.3 21.5±7.1 
Time to lateral velocity decrease(ms)* 13±5 12±6 13±4 
Minimum yaw velocity (degrees s-1-451±283 -438±293 -465±315 
Time to yaw velocity decrease (ms) 14±9 12±6 16±12 
Minimum pitch velocity (degrees s-1-498±364 -530±338 -467±435 
Time to pitch velocity decrease (ms) 10±12 6±1 14±16 
Minimum roll velocity (degrees s-1-596±837 -806±911 -336±746 
Time to roll velocity decrease (ms) 14±26 21±35 6±1 
All trials (N=11)Perturbation occurs during stance phase of tripod LF,RM,LR (N=6)Perturbation occurs during stance phase of tripod RF,LM,RR (N=5)
Phase of perturbation in stride (%) 37±28 35±26 40±32 
Maximum lateral velocity (cm s-121.0±6.9 20.5±7.3 21.5±7.1 
Time to lateral velocity decrease(ms)* 13±5 12±6 13±4 
Minimum yaw velocity (degrees s-1-451±283 -438±293 -465±315 
Time to yaw velocity decrease (ms) 14±9 12±6 16±12 
Minimum pitch velocity (degrees s-1-498±364 -530±338 -467±435 
Time to pitch velocity decrease (ms) 10±12 6±1 14±16 
Minimum roll velocity (degrees s-1-596±837 -806±911 -336±746 
Time to roll velocity decrease (ms) 14±26 21±35 6±1 

Values are means ± S.D.

Reported velocities are increases or decreases in velocity relative to scaled mean reference velocities from unperturbed trials.

LF, left front leg; RM, right middle leg; LR, left hind leg; RF, right front leg; LM, left middle leg; RR, right hind leg.

*

Indicates the time from the beginning of the perturbation until the magnitude of relative velocity begins to decrease from its maximal value.

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