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Table 4.

Average values of the power needed to overcome frictional forces(d), to impart kinetic energy to the water(k) and to overcome inertial forces(int), total mechanical power(tot) and net metabolic expenditure Ė, as measured when swimming at the indicated speeds (v) with or without fins

v (ms-1)d (W)k (W)int (W)tot (W) (kW)
0.6 12.0±4.7 8.0±3.5 13.3±3.9 33.3±9.5 0.39±0.12 
 0.7 16.5±4.0 10.8±2.8 18.8±5.0 46.1±8.4 0.48±0.11 
 0.8 23.6±3.7 15.0±2.2 24.9±7.2 63.5±5.2 0.57±0.15 
 0.9 35.0±7.9 22.1±4.9 39.6±10.3 96.7±12.8 0.74±0.18 
 42.0±9.9 26.6±6.5 48.5±10.9 117.1±10.9 0.97±0.26 
LF 0.7 19.8±7.6 7.9±3.5 4.1±2.0 31.8±11.4 0.28±0.06 
 0.8 20.6±4.8 8.5±3.4 6.9±3.3 36.0±10.3 0.32±0.04 
 0.9 37.6±12.1 15.6±6.0 10.3±5.4 63.5±19.5 0.45±0.04 
 41.7±10.3 19.5±5.8 13.7±2.5 77.0±16.8 0.56±0.07 
 1.1 59.5±7.2 27.4±3.5 23.7±10.3 110.6±15.0 0.65±0.07 
LF—L Abs. 0.6±2.9* -5.7±1.9* -24.2±9.4* -29.3±11.6* -0.29±0.09* 
(LF—L)/L 3±14 % -32±8 % -74±3 % -36±5 % -42±2 % 
v (ms-1)d (W)k (W)int (W)tot (W) (kW)
0.6 12.0±4.7 8.0±3.5 13.3±3.9 33.3±9.5 0.39±0.12 
 0.7 16.5±4.0 10.8±2.8 18.8±5.0 46.1±8.4 0.48±0.11 
 0.8 23.6±3.7 15.0±2.2 24.9±7.2 63.5±5.2 0.57±0.15 
 0.9 35.0±7.9 22.1±4.9 39.6±10.3 96.7±12.8 0.74±0.18 
 42.0±9.9 26.6±6.5 48.5±10.9 117.1±10.9 0.97±0.26 
LF 0.7 19.8±7.6 7.9±3.5 4.1±2.0 31.8±11.4 0.28±0.06 
 0.8 20.6±4.8 8.5±3.4 6.9±3.3 36.0±10.3 0.32±0.04 
 0.9 37.6±12.1 15.6±6.0 10.3±5.4 63.5±19.5 0.45±0.04 
 41.7±10.3 19.5±5.8 13.7±2.5 77.0±16.8 0.56±0.07 
 1.1 59.5±7.2 27.4±3.5 23.7±10.3 110.6±15.0 0.65±0.07 
LF—L Abs. 0.6±2.9* -5.7±1.9* -24.2±9.4* -29.3±11.6* -0.29±0.09* 
(LF—L)/L 3±14 % -32±8 % -74±3 % -36±5 % -42±2 % 

LF, with fins; L, without fins.

Student's t-test for paired data (N=28); *P<0.001.

Total mechanical power(tot)=(d+int+k)(see text for details).

The last two rows report the differences between the L and LF condition at comparable speeds (Abs., absolute difference; %, percentage difference).

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