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Table 2.

Kick frequency (KF), kick depth(KD), active body drag(Db) and trunk inclination(TI) as measured when swimming at the indicated speeds (v) with or without fins

v (m s-1)KF (Hz)KD (m)Db (N)TI (degrees)
0.6 1.29±0.14 0.34±0.08 20.0±7.8 -18.2±2.2 
 0.7 1.44±0.05 0.33±0.04 23.6±5.8 -15.9±3.7 
 0.8 1.58±0.22 0.34±0.04 29.5±4.6 -14.8±3.2 
 0.9 1.73±0.15 0.37±0.03 38.9±8.8 -12.6±3.4 
 1.0 1.90±0.07 0.36±0.04 42.1±9.9 -13.9±3.3 
LF 0.7 0.73±0.14 0.30±0.04 28.3±10.8 -17.1±4.9 
 0.8 0.92±0.17 0.30±0.07 22.9±5.4 -18.1±4.9 
 0.9 0.98±0.20 0.31±0.06 41.8±13.5 -14.6±3.1 
 1.0 1.18±0.15 0.29±0.05 41.9±10.3 -14.6±3.3 
 1.1 1.29±0.16 0.33±0.05 54.1±6.6 -10.7±3.7 
LF-L Abs. -0.71±0.04* -0.05±0.02* 0.16±4.9 -1.8±1.1 
(LF-L)/L -43±5% -14±5% 1±18% 13±18% 
v (m s-1)KF (Hz)KD (m)Db (N)TI (degrees)
0.6 1.29±0.14 0.34±0.08 20.0±7.8 -18.2±2.2 
 0.7 1.44±0.05 0.33±0.04 23.6±5.8 -15.9±3.7 
 0.8 1.58±0.22 0.34±0.04 29.5±4.6 -14.8±3.2 
 0.9 1.73±0.15 0.37±0.03 38.9±8.8 -12.6±3.4 
 1.0 1.90±0.07 0.36±0.04 42.1±9.9 -13.9±3.3 
LF 0.7 0.73±0.14 0.30±0.04 28.3±10.8 -17.1±4.9 
 0.8 0.92±0.17 0.30±0.07 22.9±5.4 -18.1±4.9 
 0.9 0.98±0.20 0.31±0.06 41.8±13.5 -14.6±3.1 
 1.0 1.18±0.15 0.29±0.05 41.9±10.3 -14.6±3.3 
 1.1 1.29±0.16 0.33±0.05 54.1±6.6 -10.7±3.7 
LF-L Abs. -0.71±0.04* -0.05±0.02* 0.16±4.9 -1.8±1.1 
(LF-L)/L -43±5% -14±5% 1±18% 13±18% 

LF, with fins; L, without fins.

Values are means ±1 S.D.; Student's t-test for paired data(N=28).

The last two rows report the differences between the L and LF conditions at comparable speeds (Abs., absolute difference; %, percentage difference).

*

P<0.001.

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