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Table 2.

Morphological parameters for real and model wings

Bombus B27Model bumblebee wing with offsetReal mayfly forewingReal mayfly hindwingCombined real mayfly wingsModel mayfly forewingQuail wingReal or model quail wing including offset
R (mm) 12.86 556 13.0 3.9 13.0 54.5 100.1 104.6 
AR 6.32 7.13 6.42 5.10 5.77 7.67 4.52 4.93 
2(S0.541 0.578 0.546 0.572 0.520 0.573 0.522 0.538 
3(S0.585 0.614 0.588 0.610 0.568 0.609 0.567 0.580 
Bombus B27Model bumblebee wing with offsetReal mayfly forewingReal mayfly hindwingCombined real mayfly wingsModel mayfly forewingQuail wingReal or model quail wing including offset
R (mm) 12.86 556 13.0 3.9 13.0 54.5 100.1 104.6 
AR 6.32 7.13 6.42 5.10 5.77 7.67 4.52 4.93 
2(S0.541 0.578 0.546 0.572 0.520 0.573 0.522 0.538 
3(S0.585 0.614 0.588 0.610 0.568 0.609 0.567 0.580 

R, wing length; AR, aspect ratio; 2(S) and 3(S),non-dimensional second and third moments of wing area.

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