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Table 1.

Stage-dependent actions of the dominant-negative Tbx5 and Tbx4

A Effect of misexpression RCAS-EnTbx5
Stage of infectionTotalNumber with wingless phenotypeNumber with wing truncations
10 7 (70%) 2 (20%) 
15 12 (80%) 2 (13%) 
12 8 (67%) 3 (25%) 
10 13 3 (23%) 5 (38%) 
11 0 (0%) 2 (22%) 
12 11 0 (0%) 1 (9%) 
13 10 0 (0%) 1 (10%) 
Totals 80 30 16 
A Effect of misexpression RCAS-EnTbx5
Stage of infectionTotalNumber with wingless phenotypeNumber with wing truncations
10 7 (70%) 2 (20%) 
15 12 (80%) 2 (13%) 
12 8 (67%) 3 (25%) 
10 13 3 (23%) 5 (38%) 
11 0 (0%) 2 (22%) 
12 11 0 (0%) 1 (9%) 
13 10 0 (0%) 1 (10%) 
Totals 80 30 16 
Stage of infectionTotalNumber with legless phenotypeNumber with leg truncations
0 (0%) 0 (0%) 
11 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 
11 12 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 
13 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 
Totals 36 
Stage of infectionTotalNumber with legless phenotypeNumber with leg truncations
0 (0%) 0 (0%) 
11 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 
11 12 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 
13 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 
Totals 36 
B Effect of misexpression of RCAS-EnTbx4
Stage of infectionTotalNumber with legless phenotypeNumber with leg truncations
6 (75%) 2 (25%) 
18 11 (61%) 5 (28%) 
12 8 (67%) 3 (33%) 
10 13 2 (15%) 7 (54%) 
11 12 0 (0%) 6 (50%) 
12 14 0 (0%) 2 (14%) 
13 15 0 (0%) 2 (13%) 
Totals 92 27 27 
B Effect of misexpression of RCAS-EnTbx4
Stage of infectionTotalNumber with legless phenotypeNumber with leg truncations
6 (75%) 2 (25%) 
18 11 (61%) 5 (28%) 
12 8 (67%) 3 (33%) 
10 13 2 (15%) 7 (54%) 
11 12 0 (0%) 6 (50%) 
12 14 0 (0%) 2 (14%) 
13 15 0 (0%) 2 (13%) 
Totals 92 27 27 
Stage of infectionTotalNumber with wingless phenotypeNumber with wing truncations
0 (0%) 0 (0%) 
16 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 
11 10 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 
13 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 
Totals 36 
Stage of infectionTotalNumber with wingless phenotypeNumber with wing truncations
0 (0%) 0 (0%) 
16 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 
11 10 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 
13 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 
Totals 36 

Wingless and legless phenotypes were obtained only when the viruses of the dominant-negative Tbx5 (EnTbx5) and Tbx4(EnTbx4) were infected between stages 7 and 10. Viral injection at later stages (stage 10 to 13) induced limb truncation at a lower rate,revealing a critical period between stages 7 and 10. By contrast,misexpression of EnTbx5 in the leg and EnTbx4 in the wing did not induce morphological alteration even when infected at early stages.

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