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Keywords: work
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2022) 225 (9): jeb243773.
Published: 12 May 2022
... ). Bio-inspired geotechnical engineering: principles, current work, opportunities and challenges . Géotechnique , 1 - 48 . 10.1680/jgeot.20.P.170 Palecek , A. M. , Schoenfuss , H. L. and Blob , R. W. ( 2021a ). Sticking to it: testing passive pull-off forces in waterfall...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2022) 225 (Suppl_1): jeb243254.
Published: 8 March 2022
...James R. Usherwood ABSTRACT Considerable attention has been given to the spring-like behaviour of stretching and recoiling tendons, and how this can reduce the work demanded from muscle for a given loss–return cycling of mechanical energy during high-speed locomotion. However, even completely...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (3): jeb228221.
Published: 2 February 2021
... in conjunction with musculoskeletal simulations and a recently developed functional index-based approach to characterise the role of human lower-limb muscles. We found that in muscles that generate most of the mechanical power and work during cycling, greater crank torque induced shifts towards greater muscle...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2020) 223 (16): jeb223743.
Published: 17 August 2020
... velocity and pennation angle change were greater during aquatic takeoffs than during terrestrial takeoffs because of the differences in knee motion. Nevertheless, we observed no significant differences in LG stress or work, but did see an increase in muscle power output during aquatic takeoffs. Because...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (24): jeb205559.
Published: 18 December 2019
...Carolyn M. Eng; Nicolai Konow; Chris Tijs; Natalie C. Holt; Andrew A. Biewener ABSTRACT Muscle function changes to meet the varying mechanical demands of locomotion across different gait and grade conditions. A muscle's work output is determined by time-varying patterns of neuromuscular activation...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (1): jeb190983.
Published: 10 January 2019
... by a work-based control optimization model. The model captured the fundamental dynamics of the transition and therefore allowed an exploration of parameter sensitivity for success at the manoeuvre (run-up speed, foot placement, etc.). The optimal transition of both the model and the parkour athletes used...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2017) 220 (9): 1654–1662.
Published: 1 May 2017
...Anne K. Gutmann; John E. A. Bertram ABSTRACT To interpret the movement strategies employed in locomotion, it is necessary to understand the source of metabolic cost. Muscles must consume metabolic energy to do work, but also must consume energy to generate force. The energy lost during steady...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2014) 217 (17): 3002–3005.
Published: 1 September 2014
... This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided that the original work is properly attributed. Hunt Jump Owl Power...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2013) 216 (7): 1338–1349.
Published: 1 April 2013
... at their preferred speed, kinematic and kinetic data were collected and mechanical work at the main lower limb joints (hip, knee, ankle) was calculated. In a separate treadmill experiment, metabolic costs were measured. Analysis revealed that the principal differences between running and galloping are located...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (14): 2354–2361.
Published: 15 July 2011
... biomechanical analogs for incremental adaptive stages in the evolutionary origin of flight. A primary assumption of the hypothesis is that work and power requirements from the primary downstroke muscle, the pectoralis, incrementally increase from shallow- to steep-angled terrestrial locomotion, and between...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2009) 212 (16): 2668–2678.
Published: 15 August 2009
...Peter G. Adamczyk; Arthur D. Kuo SUMMARY Simple dynamic walking models based on the inverted pendulum predict that the human body's center of mass (COM) moves along an arc during each step,with substantial work performed to redirect the COM velocity in the step-to-step transition between arcs...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2009) 212 (13): 2092–2104.
Published: 1 July 2009
... the hypothesis that changes in distal limb muscle work would reflect changes in mechanical work requirements while goats walked or trotted on the level, 15 deg. decline and 15 deg. incline. As steep terrain-adapted animals, changes in muscle work output are expected to be particularly important for goats...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2009) 212 (7): 977–985.
Published: 1 April 2009
... consistent with slower, more fatigue-resistant muscles. We hypothesized that these changes may accompany enhanced efficiency of contraction, perhaps in support of the enhanced capacity for endurance running. To assess efficiency, we measured work and associated oxygen consumption from isolated soleus...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (2): 170–179.
Published: 15 January 2008
...(85–126 N m –2 ) than in the PECT (50–58 N m –2 ). The SUPRA mainly shortened relative to resting length and the PECT mainly lengthened. We estimated that elastic energy storage in the tendon of the SUPRA contributed between 28 and 60% of the net work of the SUPRA and 6–10% of the total net mechanical...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (18): 3135–3146.
Published: 15 September 2007
...Bret W. Tobalske SUMMARY Power output is a unifying theme for bird flight and considerable progress has been accomplished recently in measuring muscular, metabolic and aerodynamic power in birds. The primary flight muscles of birds, the pectoralis and supracoracoideus, are designed for work...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (18): 3147–3159.
Published: 15 September 2007
... with muscle length data, force measurements were obtained using a novel tendon buckle force transducer placed on the Achilles tendon of Xenopus laevis frogs during brief accelerating bursts of swimming. In vivo work loops revealed that the plantaris generates a variable amount of positive muscle work over...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (17): 2949–2960.
Published: 1 September 2007
...-dependent neural feedback. Future work will benefit from integrative biomechanical approaches that employ a combination of modeling and experimental techniques to understand how the elegant interplay of intrinsic muscle properties, body dynamics and neural control allows animals to achieve stability...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (16): 2843–2850.
Published: 15 August 2007
...Michelle Trinh; Douglas A. Syme SUMMARY Applying a small stretch to active muscle immediately before shortening results in an increase in force and work done during subsequent shortening. The basis of the increase is not fully understood, having important implications for work and efficiency...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2006) 209 (20): 3990–3999.
Published: 15 October 2006
...Darren J. Dutto; Donald F. Hoyt; Hilary M. Clayton; Edward A. Cogger; Steven J. Wickler SUMMARY The net work of the limbs during constant speed over level ground should be zero. However, the partitioning of negative and positive work between the fore- and hindlimbs of a quadruped is not likely...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2005) 208 (4): 771–786.
Published: 15 February 2005
... fascicles were estimated to contribute substantially more work per unit mass than shorter Post SB and TB fascicles. When the mass fractions of these regions are accounted for, our regional fascicle strain measurements show that the anterior regions of the pectoralis likely contribute 76%, and the posterior...