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Keywords: strain
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (18): jeb203554.
Published: 23 September 2019
... properties and tissue density were measured at the diaphysis, distal and proximal regions of the tibia and scaling exponents were calculated. Finite element models of the tibia were used to simulate loading during walking using joint forces from inverse dynamics calculation to determine the strain energy...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2017) 220 (17): 3053–3061.
Published: 1 September 2017
... repeated loading remains unclear. This study compared the AT longitudinal, transverse and volume strains during repeated loading of the tendinopathic AT with those of the contralateral tendon in people with unilateral MAT. Ten adults with unilateral MAT performed 10 successive 25 s submaximal (50...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2013) 216 (23): 4388–4394.
Published: 1 December 2013
.... In vivo experiments have not, however, demonstrated mechanical fatigue in the Achilles tendon, possibly due to the limitations of using two-dimensional ultrasound imaging to assess tendon strain. This study used freehand three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) to determine whether the free Achilles tendon...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (14): 2354–2361.
Published: 15 July 2011
... following take-off: ascending at 80 deg, level and descending at –60 deg. Mean EMG amplitude, muscle stress, strain, work and power were minimal during shallow WAIR and increased stepwise from steep WAIR to descending flight and level flight to reach the highest levels during ascending flight. Relative...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (20): 3266–3271.
Published: 15 October 2008
... correlation was found between the moment arm of the Achilles tendon and running economy. Smaller muscle moment arms correlated with lower rates of metabolic energy consumption ( r 2 =0.75, P <0.001). moment arm tendon elastic energy strain stretch long distance runner oxygen uptake...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (8): 1289–1304.
Published: 15 April 2008
... of these fibres results in a (fairly) uniform distribution of fibre strain and work output during swimming. However, the underlying simplifications of these studies precluded unequivocal support for this hypothesis. We studied the fast muscle-fibre reorientation and the concomitant myotomal strain variance...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (2): 170–179.
Published: 15 January 2008
..., level and landing flight. We measured muscle length change and activation using sonomicrometry and electromyography, and muscle force development using strain recordings on the humerus. Our results support a hypothesis that the primary role of the SUPRA is to supinate the humerus. Antagonistic forces...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (23): 4159–4168.
Published: 1 December 2007
.... With combined changes of knee and ankle angles, the maximal increase in length of the gastrocnemius muscle–tendon unit above slack length was 6.7±1.9 cm, of which 52.4±11.7% was due to elongation of the tendon. Muscle fascicles and tendons underwent strains of 86.4±26.8% and 9.2±4.1%, respectively, across...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (21): 3789–3797.
Published: 1 November 2007
...David J. Ellerby; Graham N. Askew SUMMARY Flight power varies in a U-shaped relationship with flight speed, requiring the modulation of flight muscle power in order to meet these changing power demands. The power output of the pectoralis muscle can potentially be modulated by changing strain...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (15): 2743–2753.
Published: 1 August 2007
...Adamantios Arampatzis; Kiros Karamanidis; Kirsten Albracht SUMMARY Tendons are able to remodel their mechanical and morphological properties in response to mechanical loading. However, there is little information about the effects of controlled modulation in cyclic strain magnitude applied...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (4): 602–613.
Published: 15 February 2007
...-induced strains, affecting cortical bone responses to mechanical loading. Subadult sheep were divided into treatment groups that varied in terms of circulating E 2 levels and loading (exercised and sedentary). After 45 days, periosteal cortical bone growth rates and cross-sectional properties were...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2005) 208 (24): 4715–4725.
Published: 15 December 2005
.... We aimed to determine the in vivo Achilles tendon (AT) stress and strain during one-legged hopping and hence the contribution of elastic recoil to mechanical energy changes. We simultaneously measured the length of the Achilles tendon from the muscle–tendon junction to the insertion on the calcaneous...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2005) 208 (12): 2377–2387.
Published: 15 June 2005
... for high-performance locomotion and their similarity in hydromechanical design to tunas. Patterns of red muscle (RM) strain (i.e. relative length change) and activation were quantified at two axial positions (∼0.4 and 0.6 L ,where L is total body length), using sonomicrometry and electromyography (EMG...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2005) 208 (4): 771–786.
Published: 15 February 2005
...Arya Soman; Tyson L. Hedrick; Andrew A. Biewener SUMMARY Regional fascicle strains were recorded in vivo from the pectoralis of carneau pigeons using sonomicrometry during level slow flight,together with regional electromyography (EMG) and deltopectoral crest (DPC)strain measurements of whole...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2004) 207 (14): 2455–2464.
Published: 15 June 2004
... to mammalian cardiac muscle in both the shape of their length–tension curve and in their working length range. Although operation on the ascending region of the twitch length–tension curve sacrifices maximal force, it does permit the generation of larger forces at greater strains. In the case of cardiac muscle...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2003) 206 (18): 3125–3138.
Published: 15 September 2003
.... Histomorphometry was used to compare rates of periosteal growth and Haversian remodeling in exercised and sedentary treatment groups of juvenile, subadult and young adult sheep. In vivo strain data were also collected for the tibia and metatarsal midshafts of juvenile sheep. The results suggest that limb bones...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2003) 206 (17): 2941–2958.
Published: 1 September 2003
... fowl Numida meleagris lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and digital flexor-IV (DF-IV), during level and incline locomotion. During level locomotion, the LG and DF-IV exhibit differing muscle fascicle strain patterns: the LG shortens by 10-15% while developing force,whereas the DF-IV undergoes a stretch...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2002) 205 (2): 189–200.
Published: 15 January 2002
...Douglas A. Syme; Robert E. Shadwick SUMMARY The mechanical power output of deep, red muscle from skipjack tuna ( Katsuwonus pelamis ) was studied to investigate (i) whether this muscle generates maximum power during cruise swimming, (ii) how the differences in strain experienced by red muscle...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1992) 166 (1): 145–168.
Published: 1 May 1992
...J. J. THOMASON; A. A. BIEWENER; J. E. BERTRAM Surface strains were recorded from four rosette gauges at different sites on the right forehooves of three ponies running on a treadmill at seven constant speeds and using three gaits. Principal strains determined from the rosette signals indicate...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1989) 145 (1): 45–61.
Published: 1 September 1989
...ROBERT K. JOSEPHSON; STOKES R. DARRELL The relationships between muscle length, fractional change in length (strain) and work output during cyclic contraction were examined in scaphognathite levator muscle L2B of the green crab Carcinus maenas (L.). The muscle was subjected to sinusoidal strain...