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Keywords: safety factor
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2020) 223 (16): jeb225680.
Published: 20 August 2020
.../BF00611000 Castel , M. , Spira , M. E. , Parnas , I. and Yarom , Y. ( 1976 ). Ultrastructure of region of a low safety factor in inhomogeneous giant axon of the cockroach . J. Neurophysiol.   39 , 900 - 908 . 10.1152/jn.1976.39.4.900 Catterall , W. A. ( 2012 ). Voltage...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (12): jeb206136.
Published: 19 June 2019
.... Table 2. Body mass, attachment force and safetyfactor of C. lectularius used in the current study The maximum attachment force out of 10 runs differed between males, females and nymphs ( Fig. 3 , Table 2 ; one-way ANOVA, F =27.61, d.f.=2, P <0.001). On average, females generated...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2017) 220 (11): 1984–1996.
Published: 1 June 2017
... pad, which represents an adaptation to adhesion on smooth surfaces. Accordingly, ticks attached strongest to glass and to surface profiles similar to those of the human skin, generating safety factors (attachment force relative to body weight) up to 534 (females). Considerably lower attachment force...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2013) 216 (18): 3388–3394.
Published: 15 September 2013
... fraction of the web work. spider silk foraging insect flight kinetic energy safety factor organism performance biomimicry The design of organisms, and the materials from which they are grown, often incorporates significant safety mechanisms that prevent catastrophic failure. Some safety...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (20): 3455–3466.
Published: 15 October 2011
... in opossums also contributes to levels of femoral torsion as high as those seen in many reptilian taxa. Femoral safety factors were as high as those of non-avian reptiles and greater than those of upright, cursorial mammals, primarily because the load magnitudes experienced by opossums are lower than those...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (15): 2603–2615.
Published: 1 August 2011
... MPa; compressive: –18.9±1.0 MPa), and mechanical property tests indicated yield strengths that were fairly standard for tetrapods (157.1±3.7 MPa). Femoral bending safety factors (10.5) were considerably higher than values typical for birds and mammals, and closer to the elevated values calculated...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (15): 2616–2630.
Published: 1 August 2011
...K. Megan Sheffield; Michael T. Butcher; S. Katherine Shugart; Jennifer C. Gander; Richard W. Blob SUMMARY Skeletal elements are usually able to withstand several times their usual load before they yield, and this ratio is known as the bone's safety factor. Limited studies on amphibians and non...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (15): 2631–2640.
Published: 1 August 2011
... strains, with opossum femora experiencing similar bending loads but higher levels of torsion compared with most previously studied mammals. Analyses of peak femoral strains led to estimated safety factor ranges of 5.1–7.2 in bending and 5.5–7.3 in torsion, somewhat higher than typical mammalian values...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (15): 2397–2407.
Published: 1 August 2008
... calculations of femoral safety factors indicated high values in bending and torsion, similar to other reptiles and suggesting that substantial `overbuilding' of limb bones could be an ancestral feature of tetrapods. Because force-platform analyses produce indirect estimates of bone loading, we sought...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (8): 1187–1202.
Published: 15 April 2008
... and ground reaction forces(GRFs) during isolated hindlimb footfalls. Further, we evaluated femoral safety factors for this species by comparing our locomotor stress calculations with the results of mechanical property tests. The net GRF magnitude at peak tensile bone stress averaged 0.35 BW (body weight...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2005) 208 (9): 1665–1676.
Published: 1 May 2005
...Andrew A. Biewener SUMMARY To function over a lifetime of use, materials and structures must be designed to have sufficient factors of safety to avoid failure. Vertebrates are generally built from materials having similar properties. Safety factors are most commonly calculated based on the ratio...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2003) 206 (16): 2733–2738.
Published: 15 August 2003
... atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows that a single setule can produce an adhesive force (F a ) of 38.12 nN perpendicular to a surface. Consequently, at a total F a of 2.38×10 –2 N and a mean body mass of 15.1 mg, a safety factor (SF; F a /F m , where F m is weight) of 160 is achieved. Tenacity (τ n ; F...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2001) 204 (6): 1099–1122.
Published: 15 March 2001
...) the limb bones of I. iguana and A. mississippiensis experience substantial torsion, (ii) the limb bones of I. iguana and A. mississippiensis have higher safety factors than those of birds or mammals, and (iii) load magnitudes in the limb bones of A. mississippiensis do not decrease uniformly with the use...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1999) 202 (9): 1023–1046.
Published: 1 May 1999
... of axial rotation in lizard and crocodilian limbs. Comparisons of locomotor load magnitudes with the mechanical properties of limb bones in Alligator and Iguana indicate that limb bone safety factors in bending for these species range from 5.5 to 10.8, as much as twice as high as safety factors previously...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1998) 201 (22): 3057–3065.
Published: 1 November 1998
...William R. Corning; Andrew A. Biewener ABSTRACT To evaluate the safety factor for flight feather shafts, in vivo strains were recorded during free flight from the dorsal surface of a variety of flight feathers of captive pigeons ( Columba livia ) using metal foil strain gauges. Strains recorded...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1994) 195 (1): 381–410.
Published: 1 October 1994
.... and Bae , K. ( 1990 ). Comparison of lodging safety factor of untreated and succinic acid 2,2-dimethylhydrazide-treated shoots of mulberry tree . Plant Physiol. 92 , 12 – 16 . Vadas , R. L. ( 1972 ). Ecological implications of culture studies on Nereocystis luetkeana . J...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1994) 190 (1): 195–215.
Published: 1 May 1994
...Sean J. Kirkpatrick ABSTRACT The effects of scale on the estimated stresses and safety factors in the humeri of several bird and bat species were investigated. This was accomplished by estimating the lift distribution across the wings at two extremes of flight, gliding flight and the downstroke...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1983) 103 (1): 131–154.
Published: 1 March 1983
.... In addition, recent work has shown that the material strength of bone is similar in large and small animals. If the assumptions in this analysis are correct, large animals would have a lower safety factor to failure than small animals. The purpose of this study was to measure peak stresses acting in the limb...