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Keywords: posture
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2022) 225 (Suppl_1): jeb243231.
Published: 8 March 2022
... frequency and length. Small-bodied crouched animals primarily regulate speed through changes in stride frequency, while large-bodied arboreal species modulate stride length. Allometry Locomotion Arboreal Posture Velocity Tetrapods New York Institute of Technology College of Osteopathic...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (15): jeb242138.
Published: 5 August 2021
... and EMG activity of the hindlimbs is known to change significantly. However, the effects of HU on the integrative control mechanisms of posture and locomotion are not clear. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the center of mass (CoM) dynamic stabilization and associated adaptive changes...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (9): jeb177949.
Published: 1 May 2018
... is known about how posture affects SA in the spine. To test the hypothesis that lumbar lordosis (LL) contributes to SA, 27 adults (14 male, 13 female) walked and ran on a treadmill. Two lightweight, tri-axial accelerometers were affixed to the skin overlying T12/L1 and L5/S1. Sagittal plane accelerations...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2017) 220 (3): 478–486.
Published: 1 February 2017
... regardless of the specific leg architecture or size of the species. To address this, we instructed 12 human volunteers to walk at a self-selected velocity with four postures: regular erect, or with 30 deg, 50 deg and maximal trunk flexion. In addition, we simulated the axial leg force (along the line...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2016) 219 (16): 2525–2533.
Published: 15 August 2016
...Kayleigh A. Rose; Jonathan R. Codd; Robert L. Nudds ABSTRACT The differing limb dynamics and postures of small and large terrestrial animals may be mechanisms for minimising metabolic costs under scale-dependent muscle force, work and power demands; however, empirical evidence for this is lacking...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2013) 216 (10): 1808–1818.
Published: 15 May 2013
..., 1998 ). In conclusion, our experiments demonstrate that 20E is able to durably reduce the excitability of crayfish leg MNs and, more generally, the activity of the whole postural and locomotor network. From the electrophysiological MN properties after 20E treatment, it appears likely...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (21): 3588–3595.
Published: 1 November 2011
... plantigrade, and moved with a more kyphotic spinal posture than the young rats. Additionally, the external mechanical energy profiles of the aged animals were variable across trials, whereas the younger rats moved predominantly with bouncing mechanics. In situ analyses of the ankle extensor/plantar flexor...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (18): 3013–3020.
Published: 15 September 2011
... changes in posture, with larger species having a more erect stance. However, the ability to counter size-related stresses in this fashion may be limited to those taxa that have a parasagittal gait (such as mammals), where legs are swung underneath the body. We examined locomotor kinematics for 11 species...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (13): 2189–2201.
Published: 1 July 2011
... of each species with the greatest grand means of v x , we measured three additional variables to quantify the posture of the snake for all treatments in which these snakes were able to hold on to a surface or make forward progress. We determined the minimum length of the snake along the x -axis ( l...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2010) 213 (24): 4249–4256.
Published: 15 December 2010
... a Powerlab 8 SP system and Chart 5 software (ADInstruments, Castle Hill, NSW, Australia). To determine the coefficient of static friction (μ s ), we placed each snake in a natural extended posture on a board (28×120 cm) covered in 3 mm nylon rope, such that the long axis of the snake was parallel...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2009) 212 (10): 1576–1591.
Published: 15 May 2009
... impact of such `compensatory' growth trajectories within the context of developmental changes in locomotor behavior. I used standard kinematic and kinetic techniques to investigate the ontogenetic scaling of joint postures, substrate reaction forces, joint load arm lengths and external joint moments...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (4): 613–629.
Published: 15 February 2008
... The Company of Biologists Limited 2008 2008 cell morphology electrophysiology locomotion posture reflex confocal microscopy The ability of an animal to control the movement of its limbs precisely requires the fine control of the speed and force of contraction of its muscles. While ballistic...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (21): 3862–3872.
Published: 1 November 2007
.... Cant, J. G. H. ( 1992 ). Postural behavior and body size of arboreal primates: a theoretical framework for field studies and an illustration of its application. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 88 , 273 -283. Cartmill, M. ( 1974 ). Pads and claws in arboreal locomotion. In Primate Locomotion (ed. F...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2006) 209 (19): 3913–3924.
Published: 1 October 2006
...Angelique Paulk; Cole Gilbert SUMMARY Because the eyes of insects cannot be moved independently of the head,information about head posture is essential for stabilizing the visual world or providing information about the direction of gaze. We examined the external anatomy and physiological...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2004) 207 (6): 955–961.
Published: 22 February 2004
... responsiveness to hydrostatic rolling instability is attributed to functions requiring an upright posture and differences among species in habitat preferences. The response latency for rolling disturbances for each of the three species studied was significantly smaller than that for other disturbances( P...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2004) 207 (2): 233–248.
Published: 15 January 2004
... qualitative descriptions of chameleons, our data for the hindlimb posture of C. calyptratus during stance indicate that the limb was not particularly erect. We used SAS version 8.0 for all statistical analyses, and P <0.05 was the criterion for statistical significance. In the tabular summaries...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2003) 206 (23): 4327–4340.
Published: 1 December 2003
...Stephen M. Reilly; Richard W. Blob SUMMARY Crocodilians are unusual among quadrupedal tetrapods in their frequent use of a wide variety of hindlimb postures, ranging from sprawling to a more erect high walk. In this study, we use synchronized kinematic videos and electromyographic recordings...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2002) 205 (12): 1703–1707.
Published: 15 June 2002
.... This represents a potential means of relieving muscular effort and saving metabolic energy. * e-mail: jgal@glam.ac.uk 3 4 2002 © The Company of Biologists Limited 2002 2002 biomechanics sitting posture spine macaque Macaca spp During bouts of foraging and grooming...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1991) 157 (1): 205–226.
Published: 1 May 1991