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Keywords: motor pattern
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (2): jeb165985.
Published: 16 January 2018
... a phylogenetically primitive and conserved triplet motor pattern consisting of: triplet I (balancing side: superficial masseter and medial pterygoid; working side: posterior temporalis), which reaches onset, peak and offset first; and triplet II (working side: superficial masseter and medial pterygoid; balancing...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2016) 219 (12): 1860–1865.
Published: 15 June 2016
...Benjamin M. Perlman; Miriam A. Ashley-Ross ABSTRACT Aquatic C -start escape responses in teleost fishes are driven by a well-studied network of reticulospinal neurons that produce a motor pattern of simultaneous contraction of axial muscle on the side of the body opposite the threatening stimulus...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2015) 218 (24): 3950–3961.
Published: 1 December 2015
...Alexandra M. Yarger; Wolfgang Stein ABSTRACT The mechanisms of rhythmic motor pattern generation have been studied in detail in vitro , but the long-term stability and sources of variability in vivo are often not well described. The crab stomatogastric ganglion contains the well-characterized...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2010) 213 (13): 2303–2309.
Published: 1 July 2010
... © 2010. 2010 Manduca sexta motor pattern kinematics insect locomotion In contrast with animals having hard skeletons, soft-bodied creatures are deformable, can perform precise movements in almost limitless orientations and can thereby access resources that are otherwise difficult...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2009) 212 (22): 3605–3611.
Published: 15 November 2009
... periodically with bursts of spikes in return stroke motor neurons. In preparations of the isolated crayfish central nervous system(CNS), the temporal structures of motor patterns expressed in the active state are similar to those expressed by the intact animal. These transitions can occur spontaneously...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2008) 211 (22): 3523–3528.
Published: 15 November 2008
...: pcwainwright@ucdavis.edu ) 15 9 2008 © The Company of Biologists Limited 2008 2008 behavioral integration kinematics motor pattern Functional morphologists studying locomotion, feeding, respiration and other behaviors recognize a number of sources of variation in the movements...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (20): 3590–3600.
Published: 15 October 2007
.... ( 1995 ). Motor patterns during kicking movements in the locust. J. Comp. Physiol. A 176 , 289 -305. Burrows, M. ( 2003 ). Froghopper insects leap to new heights. Nature 424 , 509 . Burrows, M. ( 2006a ). Jumping performance of froghopper insects. J. Exp. Biol. 209 , 4607 -4621...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (20): 3579–3589.
Published: 15 October 2007
... ,respectively. e-mail: mb135@hermes.cam.ac.uk 26 7 2007 © The Company of Biologists Limited 2007 2007 locomotion kinematics motor pattern muscle Many insects are able to jump as a means of increasing the forward speed of their locomotion, launching themselves into flight...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2003) 206 (6): 1035–1049.
Published: 15 March 2003
.... * Author for correspondence (e-mail: mb135@hermes.cam.ac.uk ) 6 1 2002 © The Company of Biologists Limited 2003 2003 kinematics joint mechanics locomotion motor neuron motor pattern Pholidoptera bush cricket kick jump Many insects have evolved elaborate mechanisms...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2002) 205 (11): 1519–1530.
Published: 1 June 2002
... velocities as high as 48° per ms. The short time available to accelerate the body indicates that the movements are not powered by direct muscle contractions and that there must be storage of elastic energy in advance. The motor patterns responsible for generating the necessary forces in the hind legs...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2002) 205 (2): 265–271.
Published: 15 January 2002
...Kenji Mizutani; Hiroto Ogawa; Junichi Saito; Kotaro Oka SUMMARY We investigated the function of octopamine (OA) as a motor pattern inducer in the earthworm Eisenia fetida . We used semi-intact preparations, consisting of 20 sequential segmental ganglia of the ventral nerve cord (VNC) together...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2001) 204 (20): 3471–3481.
Published: 15 October 2001
... than 200° ms –1 . The high velocities and the associated power are generated by a preceding storage of energy and its sudden release produced by a specific motor pattern and specialisations of the femoro-tibial joints. To understand the dynamics of these rapid movements and the interrelations between...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1992) 162 (1): 313–329.
Published: 1 January 1992
...). Scorpions, opilionids and pseudoscorpions have * Present address: Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0006, USA. Key words: motor pattern, locomotion, muscle, arthropod, arachnid, evolution, electromyo- graphy, Mastigoproctus giganteus, Pandinus imperator. 314 J...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1989) 143 (1): 373–388.
Published: 1 May 1989
... 12 1988 © 1989 by Company of Biologists 1989 stick insect walking intersegmental reflex phase-dependence central reflex odulation motor pattern I exp. Biol. 143, 373-388 (1989) 3 7 3 Printed in Great Britain © The Company of Biologists Limited 1989 THE TREADING-ON-TARSUS REFLEX...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1989) 141 (1): 343–358.
Published: 1 January 1989
...S. M. REILLY; G. V. LAUDER Muscle activity patterns (motor patterns) of the jaw musculature of all vertebrates studied to date (primarily fishes and amniotes) vary considerably when they feed on different types of prey. Previous data on buccal pressure patterns suggested that feeding in the aquatic...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1988) 140 (1): 355–379.
Published: 1 November 1988
...; Sillar & Skorupski, 1986). This motor output consists of rhythmic bursts of spikes in the promotor nerve alternating with bursts of spikes in the remotor nerve. Typically, levator motor neurones fire in phase with the activity in the promotor nerve. This motor pattern thus resembles that during forward...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (1987) 133 (1): 395–414.
Published: 1 November 1987
... of Biologists Limited I9S7 MOTOR PATTERN ANALYSIS IN THE SHORE CRAB (CARCIXUS MAEXAS) WALKING FREELY IN WATER AND ON LAND* BY F. CLARAC, F. LIBERSAT, H. J. PFLUGER AND W. RATHMAYERf Laboratoire de Xeurobiologie et Physiologie Comparees, F-33120 Arcachon, France and Fakultdt fur Biologie, Universitat Konstanz, D...