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Keywords: gait
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2022) 225 (1): jeb242305.
Published: 07 January 2022
... primarily by pulling upward from an overhead branch using the beak and feet, while resisting the gravitational pitching moment with horizontal force couples of the beak, feet and tail. Vertical Branch Dynamics Torque Gait Locomotion National Science Foundation http://dx.doi.org/10.13039...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (22): jeb242813.
Published: 26 November 2021
...Olaf Ellers; Melody Khoriaty; Amy S. Johnson ABSTRACT Sea stars have slower crawling and faster bouncing gaits. Both speed and oscillation amplitude increase during the transition from crawling to oscillating. In the bouncy gait, oscillating vertical velocities precede oscillating horizontal...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (11): jeb217463.
Published: 08 June 2021
.../EMED_JOUR_1980_009_022_02 Alexander , R. M. ( 1985a ). The maximum forces exerted by animals . J. Exp. Biol. 115 , 231 - 238 . 10.1242/jeb.115.1.231 Alexander , R. M. ( 1985b ). Mechanics of posture and gait of some large dinosaurs . Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 83 , 1 - 25 . 10.1111/j.1096...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (6): jeb232850.
Published: 18 March 2021
...Geoffrey T. Burns; Richard Gonzalez; Ronald F. Zernicke ABSTRACT Runners are commonly modeled as spring–mass systems, but the traditional calculations of these models rely on discrete observations during the gait cycle (e.g. maximal vertical force) and simplifying assumptions (e.g. leg length...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (5): jeb228296.
Published: 09 March 2021
... empirical MOI were not reported. It was also unclear whether MOI affects gait energetics at slow speeds. Here, I show that a particular normalization of the pitch moment of inertia (the Murphy number) has opposite effects on walking and running energetics. During walking, simultaneous forelimb and hindlimb...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2021) 224 (2): jeb225532.
Published: 15 January 2021
...Reinhard Blickhan; Emanuel Andrada; Eishi Hirasaki; Naomichi Ogihara ABSTRACT Across a wide range of Froude speeds, non-human primates such as macaques prefer to use grounded and aerial running when locomoting bipedally. Both gaits are characterized by bouncing kinetics of the center of mass...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2020) 223 (14): jeb220319.
Published: 30 July 2020
... skeletons can be modelled as a mass bouncing on a spring-loaded inverted pendulum ( Dickinson et al., 2000 ; Full and Tu, 1991 ). Although modifications are needed to account for specific gaits and species, this model provides a basic framework to explain how legs mediate a cyclic exchange between kinetic...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2020) 223 (14): jeb224360.
Published: 28 July 2020
.../ Highlighted Article: The first 3-D kinematics of the knuckle-walking chimpanzee hand illustrates unique characteristics as well as shared commonalities with digitigrade and palmigrade walking of macaques. Locomotion Gait Evolution Ape Quadrupedal Chimpanzees, bonobos and gorillas...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2020) 223 (13): jeb224113.
Published: 01 July 2020
...Peter C. Raffalt; Jenny A. Kent; Shane R. Wurdeman; Nick Stergiou ABSTRACT During locomotion, humans change gait mode between walking and running as locomotion speed is either increased or decreased. Dynamical systems theory predicts that the self-organization of coordinated motor behaviors...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (24): jeb198226.
Published: 18 December 2019
... applied a novel, high-resolution bio-logging tag (ITAG) to seven veined squid, Loligo forbesii , in a controlled experimental environment to quantify their short-term (24 h) behavioral patterns. Tag accelerometer, magnetometer and pressure data were used to develop automated gait classification algorithms...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (17): jeb202895.
Published: 03 September 2019
... – the remaining energy is, in a sense, wasted. The majority of this wasted energy is expended to support the bodyweight and redirect the center of mass during the stance phase of gait. An order of magnitude less energy is expended to brake and accelerate the swinging leg. Accordingly, most devices designed...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (14): jeb202093.
Published: 16 July 2019
... of Biologists Ltd 2019 http://www.biologists.com/user-licence-1-1/ Summary: The movement strategies of unimpaired adults when walking on uneven terrain change over time with longer exposure to the surface. Gait Biomechanics Uneven terrain Motor learning The urban environment...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (13): jeb197228.
Published: 09 July 2019
...Andrew K. Yegian; Yanish Tucker; Stephen Gillinov; Daniel E. Lieberman ABSTRACT Stereotypically, walking and running gaits in humans exhibit different arm swing behavior: during walking, the arm is kept mostly straight, while during running, the arm is bent at the elbow. The mechanism...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2019) 222 (10): jeb198325.
Published: 23 May 2019
... stiffness to preserve their center-of-mass mechanics. We did not estimate center-of-mass mechanics in this study; nevertheless, our estimates of hindlimb stiffness suggest that goats exhibit a different behavior. This study offers new insight into mechanisms that allow quadrupeds to modulate their gait...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (24): jeb178897.
Published: 10 December 2018
... and kinematic data are available from figshare: https://figshare.com/s/10691e3dc6e9612017ee . Software for data processing are available on request from the corresponding author ( reinhard.blickhan@uni-jena.de ). References Alexander , R. M. ( 1989 ). Optimization and gaits in the locomotion...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (22): jeb189142.
Published: 16 November 2018
... ) Competing interests The authors declare no competing or financial interests. 22 7 2018 26 9 2018 © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd 2018 http://www.biologists.com/user-licence-1-1/ References Alexander , R. M. ( 1989 ). Optimization and gaits...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (18): jeb174268.
Published: 25 September 2018
... with certain gaits can enable efficient, stable locomotion; however, switching gaits requires complex information flow between and coordination of an animal's limbs. We show here that upon losing two legs, spiders can switch to a novel, more statically stable gait, or use temporal adjustments without a gait...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (11): jeb168773.
Published: 12 June 2018
... known flow-adaptive behaviours such as Kármán gaiting or entraining. Therefore, fish in high-turbulence flow may take advantage of the high variability in turbulent energy through time. These results suggest that swimming behaviour and energetics measured in the lab in straightened flow, typical...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2017) 220 (22): 4242–4251.
Published: 15 November 2017
...Kara L. Feilich ABSTRACT Comparative studies of fish swimming have been limited by the lack of quantitative definitions of fish gaits. Traditionally, steady swimming gaits have been defined categorically by the fin or region of the body that is used as the main propulsor and named after major fish...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2017) 220 (22): 4252–4260.
Published: 15 November 2017
... muscles use their elastic tendons to contribute mechanical work and produce acceleration during walking gait. Mechanical work Fascicle Acceleration Gait Ultrasound Muscle mechanics Accelerative movements increase the velocity of a body and require net positive mechanical work. In animal...