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Keywords: bone
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Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (22): jeb186791.
Published: 20 November 2018
...). 3D polygonal bones and marker meshes were extracted (OsiriX) and refined (Geomagic Studio 12) to create manifold shell meshes and evenly spaced vertices. Mesh bone models were then imported into Maya 2016 (Autodesk), where the centroids of marker meshes were calculated using XROMM Maya tools ( https...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2018) 221 (18): jeb176990.
Published: 21 September 2018
..., to the shell and skeleton simultaneously releasing calcium and magnesium carbonates, and sequestering lactate and H + to prevent lethal decreases in body fluid pH. We evaluated the effects of anoxic submergence at 3°C on various material properties of painted turtle bone after 60, 130 and 167–170 days...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2014) 217 (10): 1775–1783.
Published: 15 May 2014
...Russell P. Main; Maureen E. Lynch; Marjolein C. H. van der Meulen The vertebrate skeleton is an adaptive structure that responds to mechanical stimuli by increasing bone mass under increased mechanical loads. Although experimental animal models have shown the anabolic cortical bone response...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2012) 215 (9): 1594–1604.
Published: 1 May 2012
... deposition in broilers (ED18) preceded by increased hindlimb PPARγ mRNA (ED7–10). The treatment increased tibia/tarsus bone length as well as femur cross-sectional area in both breeds, but femur length and bone to cartilage ratio in the femur and tibia/tarsus were only increased in treated layers (ED18). We...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (15): 2603–2615.
Published: 1 August 2011
...K. Megan Sheffield; Richard W. Blob SUMMARY Salamanders are often used as representatives of the basal tetrapod body plan in functional studies, but little is known about the loads experienced by their limb bones during locomotion. Although salamanders' slow walking speeds might lead to low...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2011) 214 (8): 1240–1247.
Published: 15 April 2011
...Meghan E. McGee-Lawrence; Danielle M. Stoll; Emily R. Mantila; Bryna K. Fahrner; Hannah V. Carey; Seth W. Donahue SUMMARY Lack of activity causes bone loss In most animals. Hibernating bears have physiological processes to prevent cortical and trabecular bone loss associated with reduced physical...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2010) 213 (7): 1207–1216.
Published: 1 April 2010
...A. Wargelius; P. G. Fjelldal; U. Nordgarden; A. Grini; C. Krossøy; S. Grotmol; G. K. Totland; T. Hansen SUMMARY Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) vertebral bone displays plasticity in structure, osteoid secretion and mineralization in response to photoperiod. Other properties of the vertebral bone...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2009) 212 (24): 3985–3993.
Published: 15 December 2009
... deer femora, were tested mechanically. Compared with wet bone, wet antler had a much lower modulus of elasticity and bending strength, but a higher work to fracture. Compared with wet bone, dry antler showed a somewhat lower Young's modulus, but a considerably higher bending strength and a much higher...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (24): 4351–4358.
Published: 15 December 2007
... Black, A. J., Topping, J., Durham, B., Farquharson, R. G. and Fraser, W. D. ( 2000 ). A detailed assessment of alterations in bone turnover, calcium homeostasis, and bone density in normal pregnancy. J. Bone Miner. Res. 15 , 557 -563. Bowman, B. M. and Miller, S. C. ( 1997 ). Endochondral bone...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (15): 2676–2690.
Published: 1 August 2007
... in size and mass during ontogeny. The goal of this study was to examine how growth and development in the emu ( Dromaius novaehollandiae ) hindlimb skeleton reflects the demands placed upon it by ontogenetic changes in locomotor mechanics and body mass. Bone strain patterns in the femur and tibiotarsus...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (15): 2667–2675.
Published: 1 August 2007
... temperature. Concomitant with this increase in embryonic activity, the embryos raised at higher temperature grow to significantly heavier weights and exhibit significantly longer leg bones (tibia and tarsus)than the controls from ED12 onwards, although mineralization occurs normally. Additionally, the number...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (4): 602–613.
Published: 15 February 2007
...Maureen J. Devlin; Daniel E. Lieberman SUMMARY Although mechanical loading can stimulate cortical bone growth, little is known about how individual physiology affects this response. This study demonstrates that in vivo variation in estradiol (E 2 )level alters osteoblast sensitivity to exercise...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2007) 210 (2): 261–268.
Published: 15 January 2007
... of pregnancies experienced and suggest that hormones related to pregnancy may play the critical role in bone growth associated with caste transformation. References Alexander, R. D., Noonan, K. M. and Crespi, B. J. ( 1991 ). The evolution of eusociality. In The Biology of the Naked Mole-Rat (ed. P. W...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2005) 208 (14): 2625–2631.
Published: 15 July 2005
..., A. A. ( 1989 ). Scaling body support in mammals: limb posture and muscle mechanics. Science 245 , 45 -48. Biewener, A. A. ( 1993 ). Safety factors in bone strength. Calcif. Tiss. Int. 53 , S68 -S74. Biewener, A. A., Farley, C. T., Roberts, T. J. and Temaner,M. ( 2004 ). Muscle mechanical...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2005) 208 (11): 2091–2102.
Published: 1 June 2005
...-skeletal systems. Although numerous experimental studies have investigated the effects of size on the movements of skeletal elements during locomotion and feeding in vertebrates, relatively little is known about the scaling of the muscles and bones responsible for the actual movements. Here, we examine...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2005) 208 (9): 1665–1676.
Published: 1 May 2005
... and birds show that skeletal allometry is modest, with most groups scaling( l ∝ d 0.89 ) closer to geometric similarity(isometry: l ∝ d 1.0 ) than to elastic similarity ( l ∝ d 0.67 ) or stress similarity( l ∝ d 0.5 ). To maintain similar peak bone and muscle stresses, terrestrial mammals change posture...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2005) 208 (6): 1117–1124.
Published: 15 March 2005
... + ] and [K + ] were also measured. Femur Ca 2+ , P i and CO 3 2- compositions were similar to bone in other vertebrates. Auditory capsule had significantly more CaCO 3 than femur. Lactate was significantly elevated in all tissues after anoxia and exercise, including femur and auditory capsule. Anoxia...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2004) 207 (9): 1577–1584.
Published: 1 April 2004
...Guilherme J. M. Garcia; Jafferson K. L. da Silva SUMMARY Although there is much data available on mammalian long-bone allometry, a theory explaining these data is still lacking. We show that bending and axial compression are the relevant loading modes and elucidate why the elastic similarity model...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2003) 206 (18): 3125–3138.
Published: 15 September 2003
...Daniel E. Lieberman; Osbjorn M. Pearson; John D. Polk; Brigitte Demes; A. W. Crompton SUMMARY How bones respond dynamically to mechanical loading through changes in shape and structure is poorly understood, particularly with respect to variations between bones. Structurally, cortical bones adapt...
Journal Articles
J Exp Biol (2003) 206 (14): 2459–2471.
Published: 15 July 2003
... of bone to mechanical load, as described in Wolff's law, the mechanobiological relationship between the local mechanical environment and tissue differentiation influences everything from tissue type and molecular architecture to the formation of complex joints. This study tests the hypothesis...