SUMMARY Membrane transport in insect epithelia appears to be energized through proton-motive force generated by the vacuolar type proton ATPase (V-ATPase). However, secondary transport mechanisms that are coupled to V-ATPase activity have not been fully elucidated. Following a blood meal, the female mosquito regulates fluid and ion homeostasis through a series of characteristic behaviors that require brain-derived factors to regulate ion secretion. Despite the knowledge on the behaviors of the mosquito, little is known of the targets of several factors that have been implicated in cellular changes following a blood meal. This review discusses current models of membrane transport in insects and specific data on mosquito ion regulation together with the molecular aspects of membrane transport systems that are potentially linked to V-ATPase activity, which collectively determine the functioning of mosquito midgut and Malpighian tubules. Ion transport mechanisms will be discussed from a comparative physiology perspective to gain appreciation of the exquisite mechanisms of mosquito ion regulation.