Cover: Centipedes inhabit various terrains but are largely studied on flat surfaces. To gain insight into the mechanics and control of traversal on complex surfaces, Diaz et al. (jeb244688) studied how two centipede species negotiate laboratory model rugose terrains. The eastern red centipede (Scolopocryptops sexspinosus) changes its locomotor strategy (direct to retrograde limb-stepping pattern) with increasing terrain rugosity, whereas the tiger centipede (Scolopendra polymorpha) retains the same strategy (retrograde limb-stepping). When encountering detrimental limb-substrate interactions, both species fold their limbs towards the body, aiding limb-obstacle negotiation via passive limb gliding. Photo credit: Kenneth Wang.
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Insect diapause: from a rich history to an exciting future
Summary: Diapause is nearly universally employed by insects for surviving unfavorable seasons. In spite of impressive progress that has been made in understanding diapause, many exciting questions remain unanswered.
From perplexing to predictive: are we ready to forecast insect disease susceptibility in a warming world?
Summary: Climate change-induced temperature increases will have both positive and negative effects on insect immune systems; consequently, insect susceptibility to disease is difficult to predict. We discuss how future research can answer this key question.
Epaxial and hypaxial co-contraction: a mechanism for modulating strike pressure and accuracy during suction feeding in channel catfish
Summary: Channel catfish vary suction feeding performance by modulating co-contraction of epaxial and hypaxial muscles.
Weanling gut microbiota composition of a mouse model selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior
Summary: Selective breeding for high levels of voluntary wheel-running behavior in house mice alters the gut microbiota composition and diversity at weaning, indicating a possible regulatory role for the microbiome in exercise behavior.
Stress tolerance is influenced by artificial light at night during development and life-history strategy
Highlighted Article: Light pollution during development reduces heat tolerance in a field cricket, but its effects on desiccation tolerance are dependent on flight capability.
Hoverfly (Eristalis tenax) pursuit of artificial targets
Summary: Three-dimensional reconstructions of hoverfly bead pursuits in an indoor arena show two behavioral strategies: a distal stage, which rapidly decreases the target distance, and a proximal stage, where the hoverfly shadows the target.
Foraging habitat and site selection do not affect feeding rates in European shags
Highlighted Article: Data from acceleration–depth data loggers show that during chick rearing, European shags (Gulosus aristotelis) did not follow classical optimal foraging rules but instead foraged opportunistically.
Multiple behaviors for turning performance of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis)
Summary: Despite generally rigid bodies, bluefin tuna are capable of maneuvering with high agility by using various turning behaviors, with a flexible tail and caudal peduncle.
Taurine depletion impairs cardiac function and affects tolerance to hypoxia and high temperatures in brook char (Salvelinus fontinalis)
Summary: Cardiac taurine deficiency impairs heart function in brook char and alters whole-animal sensitivity to thermal, hypoxic and exercise stress.
Transcriptomic changes associated with maternal care in the brain of mouthbrooding cichlid Astatotilapia burtoni reflect adaptation to self-induced metabolic stress
Highlighted Article: Transcriptome sequencing of maternal mouthbrooding cichlid whole brains identifies a number of candidate neuropeptides and hormones involved in parental behavior as well as general oxygen transport, metabolic processes and neuroprotective pathways likely induced by the metabolic stress of fasting.
Developing elastic mechanisms: ultrafast motion and cavitation emerge at the millimeter scale in juvenile snapping shrimp
Editor's choice: Within 1–2 months after settlement, juvenile snapping shrimp develop an elastic mechanism that allows them to generate ultrafast strikes, cavitation bubbles and the highest recorded accelerations for underwater, repeated-use movements.
Active and passive mechanics for rugose terrain traversal in centipedes
Summary: Centipedes use a presumed passive strategy to negotiate limb–substrate collisions. One centipede species changes its limb-stepping pattern, hypothesized to reduce footfall uncertainty.
Why don't horseflies land on zebras?
Summary: Pelage contrast and small dark patches are key to enabling stripes preventing zebras being attacked by biting flies.
Increased reliance on coronary perfusion for cardiorespiratory performance in seawater-acclimated rainbow trout
Summary: Increased myocardial compaction in seawater-acclimated rainbow trout is associated with greater reliance on coronary perfusion for cardiorespiratory performance.
Polarization sensitivity and decentralized visual processing in an animal with a distributed visual system
Highlighted Article: Acanthopleura granulata exhibits polarization sensitivity, and sensory information gathered by its distributed visual system is integrated in a decentralized visuotopic map.
New funding schemes for junior faculty staff
In celebration of our 100th anniversary, JEB has launched two new grants to support junior faculty staff working in animal comparative physiology and biomechanics who are within five years of setting up their first lab/research group. Check out our ECR Visiting Fellowships and Research Partnership Kickstart Travel Grants. First deadline for applications is 15 July 2023.
JEB@100: an interview with Monitoring Editor Sanjay Sane
Sanjay Sane tells us about his first experience of publishing with the journal and why he thinks JEB is going to play a key role in our understanding of the current climate crisis and its implications for biodiversity.
The Forest of Biologists
The Forest of Biologists is a biodiversity initiative created by The Company of Biologists, with support from the Woodland Trust. For every Research and Review article published in Journal of Experimental Biology a native tree is planted in a UK forest. In addition to this we are protecting and restoring ancient woodland and are dedicating these trees to our peer reviewers. Visit our virtual forest to learn more.
Celebrating 100 years of discovery
This Special Issue focuses on broad biological questions addressed through the lens of comparative biomechanics. Crosscutting through time, this series of Reviews, Commentaries and Research Articles addresses questions from the vantage points of the history of the field, today’s research, and the future of comparative biomechanics. Read the Editorial by Sheila Patek, Monica Daley and Sanjay Sane.
Centenary Review - Adaptive echolocation behavior
Cynthia F. Moss and colleagues Review the behaviours used by echolocating mammals to track and intercept moving prey, interrogate dynamic sonar scenes, and exploit visual and passive acoustic stimuli.
Crucial DNA at crux of insect wing size evolution
Keity Farfán-Pira and colleagues have revealed that a tiny region of regulatory DNA in the vestigial gene governs whether insect wings are large or small and has played a key role in the evolution of insect wing size.