Cover: Three species of larval stomatopod crustaceans: Gonodactylaceus falcatus, Gonodactylellus n. sp. and Pullosquilla n. sp. Adult stomatopods have among the most complex eyes in the animal kingdom, but few studies have been completed on the larval visual system. McDonald et al. (jeb245371) used electroretinogram recordings and behavioural trials to examine the visual capabilities of these larvae. Each species has at least three spectral classes, one each in the blue, orange and UV portions of the spectrum, as well as distinct wavelength preferences. Photo credit: Marisa McDonald
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Lost: on what level should we aim to understand animal navigation?
Summary: Here, we critique recent advances in the field of animal navigation, using Tinbergen's four questions to explore how and why experimental approaches shape our understanding of this behavioural trait.
Air sacs are a key adaptive trait of the insect respiratory system
Summary: Air sacs are observed across arthropods, and are associated with strong flight, large body or appendage size and buoyancy control, suggesting an important role in insect life-history evolution.
Sound detection and production mechanisms in aquatic decapod and stomatopod crustaceans
Summary: Sound is important in the life-history strategies of many crustaceans. Here, we review sound detection and production in decapod and stomatopod crustaceans.
Embodied latch mechanism of the mandible to power at ultra-high speed in the trap-jaw ant Odontomachus kuroiwae
Summary: X-ray micro volume imaging reveals the fine structure of multi-latch systems on the mandible forming a ‘ball-joint’ in trap-jaw ants.
No food for thought: an intermediate level of food deprivation enhances memory in Lymnaea stagnalis
Summary: In Lymnaea stagnalis, 3 days of food deprivation enhanced memory formation and caused significant transcriptional effects, further demonstrating the importance of nutritional status and related molecular mechanisms in cognitive function.
Subtractive colour mixing with bile pigments creates the rich wing palette of Graphium weiskei butterflies
Summary: Spectrophotometry of the unusually colourful Graphium weiskei butterfly wings reveals the rare but crucial role of bile pigment to create the rich colour palette.
Limb bone strains during climbing in green iguanas (Iguana iguana): testing biomechanical release as a mechanism promoting morphological transitions in arboreal vertebrates
Summary: Limb bone strains in green iguanas moving across substrates simulating terrestrial versus arboreal habitats show that arboreal conditions can elicit higher strains in the femur, but not the humerus.
Elevated temperatures dampen the innate immune capacity of developing lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)
Highlighted Article: Elevated temperatures impact innate immune capacity of developing lake sturgeon, likely making them more vulnerable to pathogens.
Constant temperature and fluctuating temperature have distinct effects on hypoxia tolerance in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus)
Summary: Acclimation to constant temperature results in thermal specialization, whereas acclimation to fluctuating temperatures reduces thermal sensitivity and helps maintain hypoxia tolerance across a broader range of temperatures in killifish.
A cis-regulatory sequence of the selector gene vestigial drives the evolution of wing scaling in Drosophila species
Highlighted Article:Results from CRISPR/Cas9 replacement of a cis-regulatory element suggest that changes within the vestigial Quadrant Enhancer sequence in Drosophila species are responsible for the evolution of wing scaling.
Does human foot anthropometry relate to plantar flexor fascicle mechanics and metabolic energy cost across various walking speeds?
Summary: Anatomical variations in human feet can affect whole-body energy cost during locomotion, allowing individuals with longer heels to walk faster with less effort.
Physiological and behavioral evidence for multiple spectral channels in the larval stomatopod visual system
Summary: Physiological and behavioral techniques provide evidence for multiple spectral channels in the visual system of three larval stomatopod species.
The role of ecdysis in repair of an attachment system: a case study using geckos
Highlighted Article: Ecdysis restores clinging ability in geckos reduced by normal use and damage.
New funding schemes for junior faculty staff
In celebration of our 100th anniversary, JEB has launched two new grants to support junior faculty staff working in animal comparative physiology and biomechanics who are within five years of setting up their first lab/research group. Check out our ECR Visiting Fellowships and Research Partnership Kickstart Travel Grants. First deadline for applications is 15 July 2023.
JEB@100: an interview with Monitoring Editor Sanjay Sane
Sanjay Sane tells us about his first experience of publishing with the journal and why he thinks JEB is going to play a key role in our understanding of the current climate crisis and its implications for biodiversity.
The Forest of Biologists
The Forest of Biologists is a biodiversity initiative created by The Company of Biologists, with support from the Woodland Trust. For every Research and Review article published in Journal of Experimental Biology a native tree is planted in a UK forest. In addition to this we are protecting and restoring ancient woodland and are dedicating these trees to our peer reviewers. Visit our virtual forest to learn more.
Celebrating 100 years of discovery
This Special Issue focuses on broad biological questions addressed through the lens of comparative biomechanics. Crosscutting through time, this series of Reviews, Commentaries and Research Articles addresses questions from the vantage points of the history of the field, today’s research, and the future of comparative biomechanics. Read the Editorial by Sheila Patek, Monica Daley and Sanjay Sane.
Centenary Review - Adaptive echolocation behavior
Cynthia F. Moss and colleagues Review the behaviours used by echolocating mammals to track and intercept moving prey, interrogate dynamic sonar scenes, and exploit visual and passive acoustic stimuli.
Lack of oxygen curtails vision in red-eared sliders
When red-eared sliders sink to the bottom of a frozen pond for winter they reduce many biological systems to minimum life support, but now Michael Ariel and colleagues show that the reptiles temporarily lose their sight due to lack of oxygen but retain hearing.