Cover: Sowerby's beaked whales are deep-diving mammalian predators, hunting in the deep sea. To explore their diving and hunting behaviour, Visser et al. (jeb243728), for the first time, deployed biologging tags on this little-known species of toothed whale. Individuals demonstrated a remarkably different, and surprisingly faster, lifestyle than their close relatives – which invariably use low-energy strategies to access deep-sea resources. This more-energetic lifestyle of the Sowerby's beaked whale has revealed a larger diversity of deep-sea niches than previously expected, and the potential for diverse strategies yet to be discovered. Photo credit: Machiel Oudejans, Kelp Marine Research. Permit: LMAS-DRAM/2018/01.
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Physiological and behavioural strategies of aquatic animals living in fluctuating environments
Summary: We explore how aquatic animals living in highly fluctuating environments such as ponds, estuaries and intertidal zones use strategies, including phenotypic plasticity, to modify their physiology and behaviour, thus maintaining homeostasis in challenging physical conditions.
Effects of a parasympathetic blocker on the heart rate of loggerhead sea turtles during voluntary diving
Summary: Heart rate reduction in loggerhead sea turtles during diving is mediated by the parasympathetic nervous system.
METHODS & TECHNIQUES
Validating markerless pose estimation with 3D X-ray radiography
Summary: Evaluation of DeepLabCut, a markerless pose estimation tool, compared with marker-based 3D X-ray radiography (XROMM), by processing marker trajectories using Anipose and characterizing the effect of parameter choices on accuracy.
Measurement of oxygen consumption in Tenebrio molitor using a sensitive, inexpensive, sensor-based coulometric microrespirometer
Summary: Description of a coulometric respirometer constructed from common inexpensive components that is capable of measuring oxygen consumption of small animals such as insects.
The effects of soft and rough substrates on suction-based adhesion
Summary: Clingfish and synthetic suction cups adhere better on stiffer substrates than more compliant ones. Stiff cups can adhere to compliant rough surfaces, when they normally fail on hard rough ones.
Sowerby's beaked whale biosonar and movement strategy indicate deep-sea foraging niche differentiation in mesoplodont whales
Summary: Atypically fast beaked whale in a speciose genus of physically similar whales reveals foraging and energetic niche differentiation in the deep sea.
Mechanisms of sound production in deer mice (Peromyscus spp.)
Summary: Rodents produce vocal communication signals by two distinct laryngeal sound production mechanisms; both modes of sound production are more widespread among rodents than previously appreciated.
Risk-taking coping style correlates with SERT SNP290 polymorphisms in free-living great tits
Summary: Individuals facing stressful situations have been categorized into proactive and reactive copers. In free-living great tits, coping style correlates with gene SERT SNP290 polymorphisms.
Effect of stimulation frequency on force, power and fatigue of isolated mouse extensor digitorum longus muscle
Summary: Differing optimal stimulation frequencies are needed to evoke maximal muscular force and power, and to replicate a typical in vivo fatigue response in isolated fast twitch muscle.
Differences in backward and forward treadmill locomotion in decerebrated cats
Summary: Analysis of backward versus forward locomotion in decerebrated cats reveals differences in functional features of neuronal networks controlling these two locomotor modes.
Effect of prenatal glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones on developmental plasticity of mitochondrial aerobic metabolism, growth and survival: an experimental test in wild great tits
Summary: Mitochondrial aerobic metabolism is influenced by prenatal glucocorticoid exposure in a wild passerine bird species, with no evident consequences for growth rate or survival.
Effects of heat acclimation on cardiac function in the intertidal mussel Mytilus californianus: can laboratory-based indices predict survival in the field?
Summary: Commonly used indices of cardiac thermal performance (critical and flatline temperature) may not accurately estimate acclimation-induced changes in mussel thermal tolerance or reliably predict survival in the field.
Escaping from multiple visual threats: modulation of escape responses in Pacific staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus)
Summary: Pacific staghorn sculpin exposed to double stimulation from opposite sides at different time intervals, simulating coordinated predatory attacks, escape from the first stimulus but cannot turn away from the second while the escape response is in progress.
High-fat diet affects measures of skeletal muscle contractile performance in a temperature-specific manner but does not influence regional thermal sensitivity
Summary: High-fat diet consumption does not influence regional thermal sensitivity but does elicit temperature-specific effects on skeletal muscle contractile function.
The impact of diet quality on the velocity, morphology and normality of sperm in the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata
Summary: A reduced diet quality in the zebra finch shortens the sperm midpiece but other sperm traits are unaffected.
Inhibiting the endocannabinoid degrading enzymes FAAH and MAGL during zebrafish embryogenesis alters sensorimotor function
Summary: Activity of the catabolic enzymes FAAH and MAGL of the endocannabinoid system are critical for functional sensorimotor development in zebrafish.
Effects of ocean acidification over successive generations decrease resilience of larval European sea bass to ocean acidification and warming but juveniles could benefit from higher temperatures in the NE Atlantic
Highlighted Article: Ocean acidification does not affect routine and standard metabolic rate or growth of European sea bass, whereas ocean warming increases these traits; the combination of acidification and warming decreases larval size at metamorphosis.
New funding schemes for junior faculty staff
In celebration of our 100th anniversary, JEB has launched two new grants to support junior faculty staff working in animal comparative physiology and biomechanics who are within five years of setting up their first lab/research group. Check out our ECR Visiting Fellowships and Research Partnership Kickstart Travel Grants. First deadline for applications is 15 July 2023.
JEB@100: an interview with Monitoring Editor Sanjay Sane
Sanjay Sane tells us about his first experience of publishing with the journal and why he thinks JEB is going to play a key role in our understanding of the current climate crisis and its implications for biodiversity.
The Forest of Biologists
The Forest of Biologists is a biodiversity initiative created by The Company of Biologists, with support from the Woodland Trust. For every Research and Review article published in Journal of Experimental Biology a native tree is planted in a UK forest. In addition to this we are protecting and restoring ancient woodland and are dedicating these trees to our peer reviewers. Visit our virtual forest to learn more.
Celebrating 100 years of discovery
This Special Issue focuses on broad biological questions addressed through the lens of comparative biomechanics. Crosscutting through time, this series of Reviews, Commentaries and Research Articles addresses questions from the vantage points of the history of the field, today’s research, and the future of comparative biomechanics. Read the Editorial by Sheila Patek, Monica Daley and Sanjay Sane.
Centenary Review - Adaptive echolocation behavior
Cynthia F. Moss and colleagues Review the behaviours used by echolocating mammals to track and intercept moving prey, interrogate dynamic sonar scenes, and exploit visual and passive acoustic stimuli.
Crucial DNA at crux of insect wing size evolution
Keity Farfán-Pira and colleagues have revealed that a tiny region of regulatory DNA in the vestigial gene governs whether insect wings are large or small and has played a key role in the evolution of insect wing size.