Summary: Memories for the occurrence and termination of a central-brain reward signal have opposite valence and differ in how fast they are learned, how quickly they are lost and in exactly how they shape the approach-avoidance balance.
METHODS & TECHNIQUES
Summary: Skeletal landmarks in X-ray video of behaving rats are rapidly and automatically tracked with millimeter-scale accuracy using DeepLabCut machine learning software.
Summary:Danionella dracula is a sonic species that modulates putatively acoustic and postural displays during aggressive interactions based on residency and body size.
Wood ants learn the magnetic direction of a route but express uncertainty because of competing directional cues
Summary: Wood ants can learn and remember overnight the direction of a short foraging route that is specified magnetically.
The marine gastropod Conomurex luhuanus (Strombidae) has high-resolution spatial vision and eyes with complex retinas
Summary: Behavioural trials indicate the eyes of conch snail Conomurex luhuanus provide high-resolution spatial vision, and morphological examination reveals the retina contains more cell types than those of other gastropods.
Summary: Plant vibrations excited by frog calls prove highly important to the function of those calls.
Sugar-rich larval diet promotes lower adult pathogen load and higher survival after infection in a polyphagous fly
Summary: Adult females of a polyphagous fly fed a diet rich in sugar at the larval stage show increased resistance to infection, indicating developmental conditions influence adulthood.
Ocean acidification impacts sperm swimming performance and pHi in the New Zealand sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus
Highlighted Article: Sea urchin sperm performance and internal pH are reduced in ocean acidification conditions, with a high degree of individual variation in both measures.
Access to the sky near the horizon and stars does not play a crucial role in compass calibration of European songbird migrants
Summary: European songbird migrants do not calibrate their compass systems even if they have access to a view of the sky and stars during cue-conflict treatments.
Tolerance of an acute warming challenge declines with body mass in Nile tilapia: evidence of a link to capacity for oxygen uptake
Highlighted Article: Larger individuals of a teleost fish are less tolerant of acute incremental warming, measured as the temperature for fatigue from sustained aerobic swimming. Respirometry suggests this might be linked to lower oxygen uptake capacity.
Overwintering in North American domesticated honeybees (Apis mellifera) causes mitochondrial reprogramming while enhancing cellular immunity
Summary: Domesticated honeybees have developed strategies at the mitochondrial level to stay active and keep the hive warm during winter, and during this stressful period, their immune system is enhanced.
Temperature-dependent plasticity mediates heart morphology and thermal performance of cardiac function in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)
Summary: Exposure to higher average water temperatures from the start of development confers increased cardiac heat tolerance and altered heart morphology in a hatchery-bred population of juvenile Atlantic salmon.
Active muscle stiffness is reduced during rapid unloading in muscles from TtnΔ112-158 mice with a large deletion to PEVK titin
Summary: TtnΔ112-158 muscles exhibit reduced active stiffness despite having a large deletion to PEVK titin.
Temperature fluctuations and estrone sulfate affect gene expression via different mechanisms to promote female development in a species with temperature-dependent sex determination
Summary: Warm temperature and estrone sulfate induce female development in Trachemys scripta but act on different points of the sex-determining pathway.
Why do ants differ in acclimatory ability? Biophysical mechanisms behind cuticular hydrocarbon acclimation across species
Summary: Physical and chemical analyses of the cuticular hydrocarbon layers of three ant species show species-specific responses to acclimation temperature, indicating that they use different physical mechanisms to maintain waterproofing in different climates.