Cover: The tarsal claws of an adult Madagascan hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa, dwarf those of a juvenile. Claws are excellent tools for climbing, but animals face a trade-off in optimal claw design between sharpness and breakage avoidance. Examining four insect species, Pattrick and colleagues (jeb188391) found differing relationships between claw sharpness and body size. Attachment performance measurements in two of these species, hissing cockroaches and leafcutter ants, revealed that although performance declined with increasing body size for both, this effect was magnified in the cockroaches, where claws became blunter quicker with increasing body size. Image credits: David Labonte and Jonathan Pattrick.
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Hunting in archerfish – an ecological perspective on a remarkable combination of skills
Summary: The fascinating hunting behaviour of archerfish is discussed from an ecological perspective.
Food dissemination in ants: robustness of the trophallactic network against resource quality
Summary: Ants show a robust network of food dissemination that is not dependent on the quality of the food.
Periodic, moderate water flow reversibly increases hair bundle density and size in Nematostella vectensis
Summary: Hair bundle mechanoreceptors on sea anemone tentacles are reversibly enhanced in terms of abundance and dimensions with periodic, moderate water flow.
Transforming growth factor-β1 induces differentiation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) cardiac fibroblasts into myofibroblasts
Summary: Repeated treatment of cultured trout cardiac fibroblasts with physiological concentrations of human TGF1-β induces cells to transform into myofibroblasts, as well as stimulating their capacity to turnover extracellular collagen.
Sleep regulates visual selective attention in Drosophila
Summary: Sleep manipulations specifically alter visual selective attention in fruit flies, without affecting behavioral responses to simple visual stimuli.
Evidence for a southward autumn migration of nocturnal noctuid moths in central Europe
Summary: During autumn in central Europe, red underwing and large yellow underwing moths make a southward oriented nocturnal migration, although on foggy evenings, the latter species becomes disoriented.
Diet and ambient temperature interact to shape plasma fatty acid composition, basal metabolic rate and oxidative stress in great tits
Summary: The effect of diet on bird fatty acid composition, basal metabolic rate and oxidative damage is dependent on ambient temperature.
Rafting on floating fruit is effective for oceanic dispersal of flightless weevils
Highlighted Article: Pachyrhynchus weevils can exploit their physiological tolerance to seawater and the characteristics of their host plant and the fast-moving Kuroshio ocean current to disperse and colonise isolated islands.
Diapause-associated changes in the lipid and metabolite profiles of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus
Summary: Identification of diapause-associated metabolic shifts consistent with altered nutrient storage and energy utilization as well as regulatory pathways potentially contributing to developmental arrest in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus.
Unraveling inter-species differences in hagfish slime skein deployment
Summary: Variability in unraveling behavior of thread skeins from the slime of two species of hagfishes can be explained by differences in the solubility of the glycoprotein adhesive found on the skeins.
Forelimb position affects facultative bipedal locomotion in lizards
Highlighted Article: Bipedal locomotion enhances obstacle negotiation during sprint locomotion via maintaining forward speed and obstacle clearance. Forelimb position helps shift the center of mass to transition to a bipedal posture.
Subspecies differences in thermal acclimation of mitochondrial function and the role of uncoupling proteins in killifish
Summary: Changes in mitochondrial capacity, proton leak, uncoupling protein expression and fatty-acid-induced uncoupling with cold acclimation are greater in a putatively cold-adapted northern population of killifish compared with a southern population.
Interactions between corticosterone phenotype, environmental stressor pervasiveness and irruptive movement-related survival in the cane toad
Summary: Irruptive movement-related survival is influenced by an interaction between corticosterone phenotype and environmental stressor pervasiveness.
Mechanical behavior of shark vertebral centra at biologically relevant strains
Scaling of claw sharpness: mechanical constraints reduce attachment performance in larger insects
Summary: Attachment performance of insects on rough surfaces decreases with increasing body size as a result of mechanical constraints on claw design.
Temperature and dehydration effects on metabolism, water uptake and the partitioning between respiratory and cutaneous evaporative water loss in a terrestrial toad
Summary: Partitioning between cutaneous and respiratory evaporative water loss is influenced by temperature and hydration state in a terrestrial toad because of the accompanying changes in metabolic rate and skin permeability.
Underlying mechanisms and ecological context of variation in exploratory behavior of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile
Summary: Exploratory behavior in the Argentine ant is persistent and linked to the expression of the foraging gene. Workers outside the nest are more exploratory than those inside.
The role of parasitism in the energy management of a free-ranging bird
Summary: Demonstration of the sub-lethal costs of endo-parasitism for a wild population of seabirds via increased maintenance metabolism.
Jet-paddling jellies: swimming performance in the Rhizostomeae jellyfish Catostylus mosaicus
Summary: Blue-blubber jellyfish have a relatively high propulsive efficiency compared with other swimmers, which they achieve by manipulating the water around them with their flexible bodies.
Three-dimensional shape and velocity changes affect responses of a locust visual interneuron to approaching objects
Summary: A locust motion-sensitive visual neuron responds later to approaches of a three-dimensional sphere than to a two-dimensional disc and tracks expansion of looming objects that speed up or slow down.
High-frequency temperature variability mirrors fixed differences in thermal limits of the massive coral Porites lobata
Summary: Corals native to highly variable habitats demonstrate greater thermal tolerance than corals from less variable habitats after 36 days of acclimation to thermally stable or variable common garden treatments.
Echo interval and not echo intensity drives bat flight behavior in structured corridors
Summary: The echolocating bat encounters echo cascades from objects at different relative positions: data show that the bat's flight guidance is driven by the timing between echoes within cascades.
Ascending flight and decelerating vertical glides in Anna's hummingbirds
Summary: During rapid ascending flights, Anna's hummingbirds exert near-maximal power expenditure, and then decelerate by folding their wings over the body to adopt a ballistic posture.
Contraction speed and type influences rapid utilisation of available muscle force: neural and contractile mechanisms
Summary: Time to maximum force in skeletal muscle is shorter at fast versus slow contraction speeds, owing to contractile mechanisms, and in concentric versus isometric or eccentric contractions, owing to neural mechanisms.
Global dynamics of bipedal macaques during grounded and aerial running
Editors' Choice: Macaques prefer grounded running to walking when they move on two legs because of leg compliance.
New funding schemes for junior faculty staff
In celebration of our 100th anniversary, JEB has launched two new grants to support junior faculty staff working in animal comparative physiology and biomechanics who are within five years of setting up their first lab/research group. Check out our ECR Visiting Fellowships and Research Partnership Kickstart Travel Grants. First deadline for applications is 15 July 2023.
JEB@100: an interview with Monitoring Editor Sanjay Sane
Sanjay Sane tells us about his first experience of publishing with the journal and why he thinks JEB is going to play a key role in our understanding of the current climate crisis and its implications for biodiversity.
The Forest of Biologists
The Forest of Biologists is a biodiversity initiative created by The Company of Biologists, with support from the Woodland Trust. For every Research and Review article published in Journal of Experimental Biology a native tree is planted in a UK forest. In addition to this we are protecting and restoring ancient woodland and are dedicating these trees to our peer reviewers. Visit our virtual forest to learn more.
Celebrating 100 years of discovery
This Special Issue focuses on broad biological questions addressed through the lens of comparative biomechanics. Crosscutting through time, this series of Reviews, Commentaries and Research Articles addresses questions from the vantage points of the history of the field, today’s research, and the future of comparative biomechanics. Read the Editorial by Sheila Patek, Monica Daley and Sanjay Sane.
Centenary Review - Adaptive echolocation behavior
Cynthia F. Moss and colleagues Review the behaviours used by echolocating mammals to track and intercept moving prey, interrogate dynamic sonar scenes, and exploit visual and passive acoustic stimuli.
Crucial DNA at crux of insect wing size evolution
Keity Farfán-Pira and colleagues have revealed that a tiny region of regulatory DNA in the vestigial gene governs whether insect wings are large or small and has played a key role in the evolution of insect wing size.